Acid and Base - Acid and Base Balance and Imbalance 1 pH...

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1 Acid and Base Balance and Imbalance
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2 pH Review pH = - log [H + ] H + is really a proton Range is from 0 - 14 If [H + ] is high, the solution is acidic; pH < 7 If [H + ] is low, the solution is basic or alkaline ; pH > 7
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5 Acids are H + donors. Bases are H + acceptors, or give up OH - in solution. Acids and bases can be: Strong – dissociate completely in solution HCl, NaOH Weak – dissociate only partially in solution Lactic acid, carbonic acid
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6 The Body and pH Homeostasis of pH is tightly controlled Extracellular fluid = 7.4 Blood = 7.35 – 7.45 < 6.8 or > 8.0 death occurs Acidosis (acidemia) below 7.35 Alkalosis (alkalemia) above 7.45
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8 Small changes in pH can produce major disturbances Most enzymes function only with narrow pH ranges Acid-base balance can also affect electrolytes (Na + , K + , Cl - ) Can also affect hormones
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9 The body produces more acids than bases Acids take in with foods Acids produced by metabolism of lipids and proteins Cellular metabolism produces CO 2 . • CO 2 + H 2 0 ↔ H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 -
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10 Control of Acids 1. Buffer systems Take up H+ or release H+ as conditions change Buffer pairs – weak acid and a base Exchange a strong acid or base for a weak one Results in a much smaller pH change
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11 Bicarbonate buffer • Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) • Maintain a 20:1 ratio : HCO 3 - : H 2 CO 3 HCl + NaHCO 3 ↔ H 2 CO 3 + NaCl NaOH + H 2 CO 3 ↔ NaHCO 3 + H 2 O
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12 Phosphate buffer Major intracellular buffer • H + + HPO 4 2- H 2 PO4 - OH - + H 2 PO 4 - ↔ H 2 O + H 2 PO 4 2-
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13 Protein Buffers Includes hemoglobin, work in blood and ISF Carboxyl group gives up H + Amino Group accepts H + Side chains that can buffer H + are present on 27 amino acids.
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This note was uploaded on 06/10/2011 for the course NURSING Nur 112 taught by Professor King during the Spring '11 term at Wake Tech.

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Acid and Base - Acid and Base Balance and Imbalance 1 pH...

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