Fire Protection Systems.ppt - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 1...

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1FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
2Fire Protection System Design StrategyComprehensive StrategyPrevent fires from starting in the first placeEducationAdministrative proceduresSignageInspectionsFire safety programFire alarm and detection systemsDetect fires early to initiate quick evacuationDesign safe egress from buildingExits, Stairwells, CorridorsEmergency lighting and ventilation
3Design Strategies (cont’d)Fire suppression systemsSprinklerStandpipe and HoseChemicalSmoke Control systemsRemove smoke from exitsProvide fleeing occupants with breathable air
4Design Strategies (cont’d)CompartmentalizationBreak a building into small compartments to contain fire and smokeFire SeparationFire rated wall, floor, ceiling assemblies that impede the spread of fireUse of non-combustible materialsUse of low flame spread and smoke developed finish material
5Flame SpreadASTM E84 – Test Method for Surface-Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (Steiner tunnel test). Rates surface-burning characteristics of building materials and interior finishes, and provides data on smoke density.Flame spread classifications:Class A: 0-25Class B: 26-75Class C: 76-200Local building codes generally restrict use of materials in different occupancies based upon flame spread and smoke developed ratings.For example, NYSED Manual of Planning Standards requires finishes in corridors, passageways, stairways to be Class A.
6Sources of IgnitionSpontaneous CombustionElectrical SourcesArcingLightningMechanicalFrictionOtherIntentional (arson)Cigarettes
7Fire IssuesProducts of combustion – CO, CO2, other gasesFire quickly consumes oxygenLack of oxygenRapid deterioration of human capabilitiesMuscle controlThinking, consciousness, etc.Poor visibility
8Fire Issues (cont’d)Vertical shafts promote spread of smoke, heatElevatorsEscalatorsAtriumsHVAC systems can spread smokeWindowless buildings – prevent entry by firefightersInterior finishes – can spread fire, give off smokeHigh rise buildings (g.t. six stories) – complicate firefighting, rescue
9Fire Alarm and Detection SystemsDesign StandardsFire Code of NYS – defines minimum standards where fire alarm and detection system is required, general design requirementsNFPA 72 – National Fire Alarm Code – defines specific design standardsFunctions of a fire alarm and detection system:Initiate alarmManuallyAutomaticallyNotify occupantsAudible alarmsVisual alarms
10Functions (cont’d)Automatically signal fire department or central stationRecall elevatorsSupervise special systems:Fire pump operation, power availabilitySprinkler system statusUnlock doorsAutomatically close doors that are part of fire separationsAutomatically release smoke relief hatchesControl operation of HVAC supply and exhaust fansTotal shut downSpecial smoke management systems
11Typical Fire Alarm System
12Fire Alarm Control Panel

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