Detergents - Chapter 2 DETERGENTS CONTENTS 2.1 CURRENT...

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1 Chapter 2 DETERGENTS CONTENTS 2.1 CURRENT REALITIES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES ........................................................ 3 2.1.1 Current Realities ........................................................................................................................ 3 2.1.1.1 Cleaning Products ............................................................................................................................................. 3 2.1.2 Future Perspectives: The Challenge ...................................................................................... 4 2.2 SURFACTANTS: CLASSIFICATION ........................................................................................ 5 2.2.1 I NTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.2 Ionic Surfactants ........................................................................................................................... 7 2.2.2.1 Anionic Surfactants .......................................................................................................................................... 7 2.2.2.2 Cationic Surfactants ......................................................................................................................................... 21 2.2.3 A MPHOTERIC S URFACTANTS ....................................................................................................... 27 2.2.4 N ONIONIC S URFACTANTS ............................................................................................................ 29 2.2.5 N ONHYDROCARBON S PECIALTY S URFACTANTS .......................................................................... 41 2.3 SURFACE ACTIVITY ................................................................................................................... 44 2.3.1 A DSORPTION A ND C MC ................................................................................................................ 44 2.3.1.1 Surfactant Molecules in Aqueous Phase ......................................................................................................... 44 2.3.1.2 Interfacial Activity of Surfactant Molecules .............................................................................................. 46 2.3.1.3 Gregarious Behavior of Surfactant Molecules ............................................................................................... 55 2.3.2 Interactions With Liquid Oils ................................................................................................ 64 2.3.2.1 Reduction of Water-Oillnterfacial Tension ............................................................................................... 64 2.3.2.2 Detergency Implications .............................................................................................................................. 66 2.4 DISHWASHING WITH DETERGENTS .................................................................................. 68 2.4.1 I NTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 68 2.4.2 Hand Dishwashing Detergents .............................................................................................. 69 2.4.2.1 Hlstorical PERSPECTIVE/EVOIUTION ....................................................................................................... 69 2.4.2.2 Hand Dishwashing Surfactants ........................................................................................................................... 70 2.4.2.3 Typlcal APPIICATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 80 2.4.2.4 Forms And Specialty Products ............................................................................................................................ 82 2.4.3 Automatic Dishwashing Detergents ..................................................................................... 83 2.4.3.1 Historical Perspective / Evolution ................................................................................................................... 84 2.4.3.2 Cleaning With Automatic Dishwashers .......................................................................................................... 85 2.4.3.3 Forms and Speciaity Products ....................................................................................................................... 95 2.4.3.4 Rinse Aids ....................................................................................................................................................... 96 2.4.3.6 Speciaity Products Machine Cieaning and Upkeep ....................................................................................... 98 2.4.3.7 Safety and Envlronmental Considerations .................................................................................................... 99 2.4.4 Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 100 2.5 APPLICATIONS OF DETERGENT IN LAUNDERING ......................................................... 101
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