guia 3 - S(SM NUC Grammar the analysis of the structure of...

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S→(SM)ⁿ NUC Grammar: the analysis of the structure of phrases and sentences. Types of grammar: *Subconscious –not the result of any teaching (psychologists) *Linguistic etiquette –identification of the proper or best structures to be used in a language (sociologist) * Study and analysis of the structures found in a language. (linguistics) Parts of Speech: Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. Nouns are words used to refer to people (boy), objects (backpack), creatures (dog), places (school), qualities (roughness), phenomena (earthquake) and abstract ideas (love) as if they were all “things.” Articles are words (a, an, the) used with nouns to form noun phrases classifying those “things” (You can have a banana or an apple) or identifying them as already known (I’ll take the apple). Adjectives are words used, typically with nouns, to provide more information about the things referred to (happy people, large objects, a strange experience). Verbs are words used to refer to various kinds of actions (go, talk) and states (be, have) involving people and things in events (Jessica is ill and has a sore throat so she can’t talk or go anywhere). Adverbs are words used, typically with verbs, to provide more information about actions, states and events (slowly, yesterday). Some adverbs (really, very) are also used with adjectives to modify information about things ( Really large objects move slowly . I had a very strange experience yesterday ). Prepositions are words (at, before, to, by, in, on, near, with, without) used with nouns in phrases providing information about time ( at five o’clock, in the morning), place ( on the table, near the window) and other connections ( with a knife, without a thought) involving actions and things. Pronouns are words (she, herself, they, it, you) used in place of noun phrases, typically referring to people and things already known. ( She talks to herself . They said it belonged to you ). English has various forms of personal pronouns, subjective (he, she), objective (me, us, him), reflexive (myself, yourselves), possessive (mine, my, ours), indefinite (somebody, everyone, all).
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