the analysis of the structure of phrases and sentences.
Types of grammar:
*Subconscious –not the result of any teaching (psychologists)
*Linguistic etiquette –identification of the proper or best structures to be used in a
language (sociologist) * Study and analysis of the structures found in a language.
Parts of Speech:
Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech.
Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the
same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next.
are words used to refer to people (boy), objects (backpack), creatures (dog),
places (school), qualities (roughness), phenomena (earthquake) and abstract ideas (love)
as if they were all “things.”
are words (a, an, the) used with nouns to form noun phrases classifying those
“things” (You can have
apple) or identifying them as already known (I’ll
are words used, typically with nouns, to provide more information about the
things referred to (happy
are words used to refer to various kinds of actions (go, talk) and states (be, have)
involving people and things in events (Jessica
sore throat so she can’t
are words used, typically with verbs, to provide more information about actions,
states and events (slowly, yesterday). Some adverbs (really, very) are also used with
adjectives to modify information about things (
large objects move
. I had a
are words (at, before, to, by, in, on, near, with, without) used with nouns in
phrases providing information about time (
the morning), place (
the window) and other connections (
a thought) involving
actions and things.
are words (she, herself, they, it, you) used in place of noun phrases, typically
referring to people and things already known. (
). English has various forms of personal pronouns, subjective (he, she), objective
(me, us, him), reflexive (myself, yourselves), possessive (mine, my, ours), indefinite