V24yuan - 24 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Monopoly...

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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24 Monopoly
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2 Outline What causes monopoly Profit-maximizing choices of monopoly Markup pricing Inefficiency of monopoly Natural monopoly
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3 Pure Monopoly A monopolized market has a single seller. The monopolist’s demand curve is the (downward sloping) market demand curve. So the monopolist can alter the market price by adjusting its output level.
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4 Pure Monopoly Output Level, y $/output unit p(y) Higher output y causes a lower market price, p(y).
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5 Why Monopolies? What causes monopolies? a legal fiat; e.g. US Postal Service a patent; e.g. a new drug sole ownership of a resource; e.g. a toll highway formation of a cartel; e.g. OPEC large economies of scale; e.g. local utility companies.
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6 Pure Monopoly Suppose that the monopolist seeks to maximize its economic profit, What output level y* maximizes profit? Π ( ) ( ) ( ). y p y y c y = -
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7 Profit-Maximization Π ( ) ( ) ( ). y p y y c y = - At the profit-maximizing output level y* ( 29 d y dy d dy p y y dc y dy Π ( ) ( ) ( ) = - = 0 so, for y = y*, ( 29 d dy p y y dc y dy ( ) ( ) . =
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8 Profit-Maximization $ R(y) = p(y)y c(y) y Π (y) y* At the profit-maximizing output level the slopes of the revenue and total cost curves are equal; MR(y*) = MC(y*).
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9 Marginal Revenue Marginal revenue is the rate-of-change of revenue as the output level y increases; ( 29 MR y d dy p y y p y y dp y dy ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . = = + dp(y)/dy is the slope of the market inverse demand function so dp(y)/dy < 0. Therefore MR y p y y dp y dy p y ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) = + < for y > 0.
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10 Marginal Revenue E.g. if p(y) = a - by then R(y) = p(y)y = ay - by 2 and so MR(y) = a - 2by < a - by = p(y) for y > 0. p(y) = a - by a y a/b MR(y) = a - 2by a/2b
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11 Marginal Cost Marginal cost is the rate-of-change of total cost as the output level y increases; MC y dc y dy ( ) ( ) . = E.g. if c(y) = F + α y + β y 2 then MC y y ( ) . = + α β 2
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© 2010 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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V24yuan - 24 2010 W. W. Norton &amp; Company, Inc. Monopoly...

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