Viewers_Guide_Glossary - TAKEN FROM A VIEWERS GUIDE TO FILM...

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TAKEN FROM A VIEWER’S GUIDE TO FILM GLOSSSARY BY RICHARD M. GOLLIN (OUT OF PRINT) allegory: a story in which the characters each represent an abstract moral, psychological, or philosophical trait or quality, so their dramatic relationships reveal the nature of other more abstract kinds of relationships. ambient sound "live" background sounds creating the illusion that we are seeing and hearing a real world, such as the sounds of distant birds or cars, supposedly incidental but in fact functioning to enhance the drama. American shot : a three-quarter shot showing a human figure from the knees up, implying the ability to move at will, so-called by the French. antagonist : any character or force opposing the protagonist's desires, making for difficulties or dramatic conflict; in U.S. films usually though not always a bad guy. art director (production designer) the artist who selects or designs the sets, settings, locations, and props seen in the film, in accordance with the film's visual style aspect ratio : the screens' width in relation to its height, classically 1.33 to 1, more recently widescreen's 1.85 to 1, or, if an anamorphic ratio, 235 to 1 assistant director : one of several director's helpers as needed to assist with set-ups, secondary shots, car or crowd cueing and control, preliminary rehearsals of lesser performers, or other directorial chores. auteur : a film's "author" or primary creative sensibility, supposedly the director, a term originating in French critical policy directed against impersonal films, now supporting the cult of the director as superstar avant-garde films : art films extending or violating film conventions in new ways, made by individual artists for their own noncommercial reasons, usually challenging viewers to find for themselves the appropriate ways to look at them back light : lights illuminating the main image from the rear, sculpting it from the background with highlighted edges, as with haloed hair background music : off-screen extra-diegetic music heard during the film, not originating within the action but accompanying that action in order to heighten its dramatic power blocking : a director's primary responsibility, planning the positions and movements of actors, objects, and cameras during a shot, so the actors can "hit their marks" taped on the floor, remain in focus, and perform with maximum dramatic effectiveness canted camera shot : a shot made with the camera slanted off its vertical axis, showing a world somehow gone awry center line : an imaginary line perpendicular to the camera's line of sight, basis of the 180-degree rule, determining the "picture plane" or plane of the action parallel to the screen, never crossed between shots without risking the viewer's sense of spatial relationship 1
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cinema verité : a form of documentary or nonfiction film laying claim to "cinema truth" (the term translating the Russian kino Pravda), seeking to avoid all artistic dissimulation and to show the event as it
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Viewers_Guide_Glossary - TAKEN FROM A VIEWERS GUIDE TO FILM...

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