acidbase1 - S olomons Study Notes General Chemistry CHE...

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Unformatted text preview: S olomons Study Notes General Chemistry CHE 131/129 Fall 2008 Final Exam Solomon Weiskop PhD [ Acids & Bases (1) ] These Study Notes only cover the part of Ch. 16 that is covered in CHE 131/129. (The rest of Ch 16 will be covered in CHE 132.) Study Notes & Practice Problems are available to print out by registering at www.solomonlinetutor.com Solomon Weiskop PhD Solomons CHE 1 31/129 Tutoring Copyright 2008 1 We will consider three different definitions of Acids & Bases. The historically earliest (and least general) is the Arrhenius definitions. We will discuss that one first. Then, we will focus on a more general way of defining acids and bases, the Bronsted definitions (also called Bronsted-Lowry definitions). Finally we will briefly discuss the most general way of defining acids and bases, the Lewis definitions. 1. Arrhenius Definition of Acids & Bases Acid generates H + (H 3 O + ) when dissolved in water [ H + = a proton ] Base generates OH- when dissolved in water H 3 O + hydronium OH- hydroxide 2 According to the Arrhenius definitions : An Acid is something that generates hydronium ( H 3 O + ) when dissolved in water. A strong Arrhenius acid will do this completely (100%). A weak Arrhenius acid will do this, but only to a small extent (much less than 100%) A Base is something that generates hydroxide ( OH- ) when dissolved in water. A strong Arrhenius base will do this completely (100%) A weak Arrhenius base will do this, but only to a small extent (much less than 100%) Notice that the Arrhenius definitions are very specific. They only consider dissolving something in water (i.e. aqueous solutions). [We will soon discuss other, more general, definitions that do not make any specific reference to water.] It is important for you to be able to recognize when an acid or base is strong. I will say something about strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases now. [A more complete discussion of strong and weak acids and bases will be postponed until after Ive introduced the Bronsted definitions. ] Lets begin with strong and weak Arrhenius bases : Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is the prototypical Arrhenius base. It is actually just a water-soluble ionic compound [which we talked about back in the Study Notes on Solutions (Ch 5)]. Like any water-soluble ionic compound, when dissolved in water NaOH dissociates (falls apart) into its ions Na + and OH- (as I discussed in the Study Notes on Solutions ). [see reaction on previous chart] 3 However, since one of its ions is hydroxide ( OH- ) we do not call NaOH a s alt but rather we call it an Arrhenius base. NaOH is a strong Arrhenius base because it dissociates (falls apart) completely (100%) and thus generates hydroxide OH- 100%....
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acidbase1 - S olomons Study Notes General Chemistry CHE...

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