), and does not thaw in springso soon as the surface of the land, moreover, at greater depths,where the bottom of the sea does not freeze, the mud a few feetbeneath the top layer might remain even in summer below 32 degrees,as is the case on the land with the soil at the depth of a fewfeet. It is much softer, more transparent, and containsmore animal matter, than the natural incrustation at Ascension; butwe here again see the strong tendency which carbonate of lime andanimal matter evince to form a solid substance allied to shell. The frontier of Chile is better guarded by the Cordillera than bythe waters of the sea. Valleys, excavation of, in Chile. It appears also from the official records that the trees wereunexpectedly, some years afterwards, succeeded by a wire grasswhich spread over the whole surface. All thesmall rivers became highly saline, and this caused the death ofvast numbers in particular spots; for when an animal drinks of suchwater it does not recover. On viewing the islandfrom an eminence, the first circumstance which strikes one is thenumber of the roads and forts: the labour bestowed on the publicworks, if one forgets its character as a prison, seems out of allproportion to its extent or value. Volcanic bombs. I may remark, that inAbyssinia the elephant, according to Bruce, when it cannot reachwith its proboscis the branches, deeply scores with its tusks thetrunk of the tree, up and down and all round, till it issufficiently weakened to be broken down. The foreground is singularfrom the number of parallel and step-formed terraces; and theincluded strip of green valley, with its willow-bushes, iscontrasted on both hands with the naked hills. It was interesting to hear the wild cries of the muleteers,and to watch the long descending string of the animals; theyappeared so diminutive, there being nothing but the black mountainswith which they could be compared. Of native animals, land-crabs andrats swarm in numbers. One dying Indianseized with his teeth the thumb of his adversary, and allowed hisown eye to be forced out sooner than relinquish his hold. Within the stockade a mound of earth is thrown up, behindwhich the defenders can rest in safety, or use their firearms overit.
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- Spring '20
- Tierra del Fuego, The Great Wave off Kanagawa