Module 1 - 1d1 Intro to Carbohydrates General formula...

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1d1: Intro to Carbohydrates General formula CH2O(n) Simple sugers: monosaccharides 2-10 units linked together: oligosaccharides o Attached to lipids: form glycolipids o Attached to proteins: from glycoproteins (embedded in cell membrane, wave on outside) Polysaccharides: very long chains Hydrolysis: breaking of chain of monomers, producing water 1d2: Monosaccharides Energy and source of carbon for other cellular compounds Carbon chain containing one aldehyde or ketone plus (-OH) groups at other carbons Aldehyde: R-CHO, ketone: RCO Generally 3-7 carbons Pentose: ribose, deoxyribose Stereoisomers: same bonding sequence but different arrangement in space o Tetrahedral nature of carbons can lead to asymmetry o Carbon bonded to 4 diff groups: can get stereoisomers, L and D 1e1: Nucleic Acids Macromolecules constructed of long chain of nucleotides Nucleotides have 3 units: o Nitrogen base o Pentose sugar o Phosphate group 1e2: Nitrogen Bases Organic compounds of C, N, H and sometimes O
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Two types o Pyrimidine: cytosine (both DNA and RNA), uracil (RNA only), thymine (DNA only) 1 cyclic ring o Purine: adenine, guanine both found in DNA and RNA 2 cyclic rings 1e3: Nucleosides Pentose sugar: 5 carbon, either ribose or deoxyribose o Position 2 OH = ribose, H = deoxyribose Types of nucleosides o Purine or pyrimidine attached to a sugar o If the pentose is ribose, compound is ribonucleoside, ex. adenosine o If the pentose is deoxyribose, compound is deoxynucleoside, ex. Deoxyadenosine 1e4: Nucleotides Nucleoside + phosphoric acid = nucleotide Examples: o Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), dAMP, ADP, dADP, ATP, dATP, 3’ or 5’ cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic ADP ribose Nucleotides: the monomers from which RNA and DNA are made Second messengers in cell signalling, ex. cAMP
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Module 1 - 1d1 Intro to Carbohydrates General formula...

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