Immigration - ~ California Immigration and Ethnic Patterns...

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1 ~ California Immigration and Ethnic Patterns ~ Gold Days (1860s) - nearly 40% foreign born o spawned by gold rush & labor needs ± Irish, Germans, English, Welch, French, Mexicans ± Chileans to build roads - Chile Bar / American River ± Chinese to dig mining tunnels and build railroads ± tedious, hard work ± largest group of migrants (35,000) ± segregated part of town ± worst discrimination ± 1882 - Chinese Exclusion Act Farming Days (1870 - 1930) o large influx of Europeans (most western & southern) o moved to similar environments (climates, landscapes) ± Germans - moved to farming land ± Sacramento Valley - grain crops, rice ± Santa Clara Valley - fruit orchards ± Los Angeles Basin - citrus orchards ± Portuguese and Scandinavians - dairy farming ± San Joaquin valley and coastal towns ± Gustine (over 1/2 pop. today) ± Scandinavians: Solvang, Eureka, Rocklin ± Italians moved to cities like San Francisco ± large enterprising families ± banking, produce markets, bakeries, fishing Mexican Influence - 1930s to present o largest ethnic group then and today o seasonal farm laborers and other jobs o manual assembly labor during W.W.II ± Brazero program (1950s & 1960s)
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2 Asian Influence - 1930s to present o Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos - irrigated row crops ± rural & urban areas; fruit stands o World War II Internment camps African-American (Black) - 1940 to present o migrated for wartime employment ± Oakland - railroads, shipyard ± Los Angeles - aircraft o high urbanized population (non-farm workers) Native American o smallest ethnic group; rural, small towns or rancherias o largest population in Los Angeles
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3 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, concluding the Mexican War, extends citizenship to approximately 80,000 Mexican residents of the Southwest. 1849 California Gold Rush spurs immigration from China. 1850s Know Nothing political party unsuccessfully seeks to increase restrictions on naturalization. 1854 Chinese immigrants are prohibited from testifying against whites in California courts. 1870 Naturalization Act limits American citizenship to "white persons and persons of African descent," barring Asians from U.S. citizenship. 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act restricts Chinese immigration. 1907 Expatriation Act declares that an American woman who marries a foreign national loses her citizenship. 1913
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Immigration - ~ California Immigration and Ethnic Patterns...

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