ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (LECTURE NOTES)

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (LECTURE NOTES) - ENDOCRINE SYSTEM General...

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Unformatted text preview: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM General Overview Major Control System Ductless Glands; Produce Hormones Diffuse into Blood Slow Initial Effects, but Effects Persist much longer Hormones act on specific Targets Regulated by Negative Feedback Classification of Glands Endocrine – ductless glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream Exocrine – ducted glands that secrete their products onto a surface Hormones - General Function Modify activity of target cells Targets have specific receptors for the particular hormone Distributed by blood Location of Receptors Cell Surface- cell membrane Intracellular- Cytoplasm- Nucleus Mechanisms of Hormone Action Steroids (Synthesized from Cholesterol)- Hormone enters cell- Hormone forms complex with receptor- Complex binds to DNA in nucleus- Transcription of mRNA- New protein is synthesized in cytoplasm (Translation)- E.g. Testosterone Mechanisms of Hormone Action continued Non-Steroids (Proteins/Peptides/Amine)- Hormone does not enter cell & acts as 1st messenger- Hormone binds to receptor on cell membrane- Enzyme is activated- 2 nd messenger is produced- 2 nd messenger affects cell function Regulation by Receptors Changeable Number of receptors on target- Up Regulation * Low hormone levels * Number of receptors increases * Target’s responsiveness increases...
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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (LECTURE NOTES) - ENDOCRINE SYSTEM General...

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