lecture 9 fossil fuel

lecture 9 fossil fuel - GEOL 103 Spring 2009 Lecture 9...

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2/14/09 1 Lecture 9: Fossil fuels Reading: Montgomery Chapter 14 GEOL 103 Spring 2009 Environment of the Earth Humans Require Abundant Energy Fossil Fuels are energy stored in chemical bonds of ancient organic life Oil Natural gas Coal Oil shale Tar sand When we burn them, we are using that stored energy In class poll: How long will global oil resources last, ballpark A.10 years B.50 years C.100 years D.1000 years E.There is no oil leB U.S. energy consumpFon, 1949‐2001
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2/14/09 2 Oil and Natural Gas Petroleum: complex suite of chemical compounds including oil and natural gas associated with it Oil: a variety of heavy liquid hydrocarbon compounds Natural Gas: gaseous hydrocarbon compound most commonly methane (CH 4 ) FormaFon of Oil and Gas Deposits Organic maRer, rich in carbon and hydrogen, accumulate and are rapidly buried Prevents respiraFon – improves the chance that chemical energy will be preserved in CH2O Source rocks = organic rich sediment This is where the process of petroleum starts Mature oil and gas deposits happen millions of years later FormaFon of Oil and Gas Deposits A mixture of hydrocarbon products are derived from most oil fields The Fme and history of the formaFon of the energy deposit are factors Heat and pressure act to modify the organic molecules Large organic molecules (‘heavy’ hydrocarbons) will be broken down into smaller molecules (‘lighter’ hydrocarbons) Oil and Gas MigraFon The solid organic maRer will be converted to liquids and/or gases (hydrocarbons) Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon will migrate out of the rocks in which they formed The migraFon is required so the hydrocarbon will pool in economically usable deposits Reservoir rocks for hydrocarbon are overlain by impermeable caps that trap the migraFon of the hydrocarbons, otherwise, oil and gas may keep rising to the earth’s surface
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2/14/09 3 Which is an example of a highly porous sedimentary rock: A.Shale B.Granite C.Sandstone D.Mica E.Slate Types of petroleum traps
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