visual literacy

visual literacy - SPECIAL SECTION J. Mestre, Ed....

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J. Mestre, Ed. (Information Age, Greenwich, CT, 2005), pp. 1 51. 19. E. Klopfer, Augmented Reality: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008). 20. M. Dunleavy, C. Dede, R. Mitchell, J. Sci. Educ. Technol. , 10.1007/s10956-008-9119-1, published online 8 September 2008. 21. P. O Shea, R. Mitchell, C. Johnston, C. Dede, Int. J. Gaming Comput. Mediat. Simul. 1 (1), 1 (2008). 22. My research team s studies of virtual reality and multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs) are funded by the NSF, and our research on augmented reality is funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of these funding agencies. Supporting Online Material www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/323/5910/66/DC1 SOM Text Figs. S1 to S7 10.1126/science.1167311 PERSPECTIVE Technology and Informal Education: What Is Taught, What Is Learned Patricia M. Greenfield The informal learning environments of television, video games, and the Internet are producing learners with a new profile of cognitive skills. This profile features widespread and sophisticated development of visual-spatial skills, such as iconic representation and spatial visualization. A pressing social problem is the prevalence of violent video games, leading to desensitization, aggressive behavior, and gender inequity in opportunities to develop visual-spatial skills. Formal education must adapt to these changes, taking advantage of new strengths in visual-spatial intelligence and compensating for new weaknesses in higher-order cognitive processes: abstract vocabulary, mindfulness, reflection, inductive problem solving, critical thinking, and imagination. These develop through the use of an older technology, reading, which, along with audio media such as radio, also stimulates imagination. Informal education therefore requires a balanced media diet using each technology s specific strengths in order to develop a complete profile of cognitive skills. I nformal education what goes on outside of the classroom shapes our thought pro- cesses as they develop from early childhood. Media technologies are an extremely impor- tant part of informal learning environments. Media are also part of formal learning envi- ronments, the subject of other papers in this special issue on educational technology. The technologies composing the informal learning environment are generally intended for enter- tainment rather than education. However, they are important sources of cognitive socialization, often laying the foundation for knowledge ac- quisition in school. In the midst of much press about the de- creasing use of the print medium and failing schools, a countervailing trend may come as a surprise: the continuing global rise in IQ per- formance over more than 100 years. This rise, known as the Flynn effect, is concentrated in nonverbal IQ performance (mainly tested through visual tests) but has also occurred, albeit to a lesser extent, in verbal IQ ( 1 5 ). Rising IQ performance
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visual literacy - SPECIAL SECTION J. Mestre, Ed....

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