commtheoryexam2outline

commtheoryexam2outline - Chapter 6 Rhetoric Refers to the...

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an happen at the same time!!! Chapter 6 Rhetoric Refers to the use of persuasion, typically involving language Mainly falls within interpretive paradigm Aristotle Ethos- speaker Pathos- logos Logos- audience Syllogisms & Enthymemes Syllogism - deductive 3 part argument Major premise: “politicians are deceitful” Minor premise: “Governer X is a politician” Conclusion: “Governer X is deceitful” Enthymeme - syllogism whose function is a rhetorical persuasion >Audience connects the dots, making it a very effective style of persuasion “Governer X is a politician so…” Canons of Rhetoric 5 Characteristics of effective comm. 1) Invention - Discovery of appropriate ideas/topics; coming up with an appropriate topic for a given situation Exe: Talking about school at a family function 2) Arrangement :-Structure/organization of speech; creating messages in a way so people can understand them. Exe: A story’s beginning, middle, and end. 3) Style - use of speech devices to better persuade; metaphor, simile, poetry, etc. Exe: “You don’t want to date her…her jayjay is like a sperm bank” 4) Delivery - voice, body, and non-verbal ques. Exe: Adolf Hitler’s speeches Fisher’s Narrative Theory
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Narrative theory - storytelling as basic and universal of all human activities rational world paradigm - characterized way for thinking about the realms of science (method) & rhetoric (logic) exe: Rational World Paradigm Narrative Paradigm Pepole are rational People are storytellers People make decisions based on arguments People make decisions based on good reasons Communicative situation determines argument History, biography, culture, & character determine what we consider good reasons Rationality is determined by how much we know and how well we argue Rationality is determined by the coherence and fidelity of our stories The world is a set of logical puzzles The world is a set of stories from which we choose and re-create our lives Narrative coherence - integrity of a story’s structure; whether it hangs together as a story should. 1)plot consistent 2)enough detail to understand NARRATIVE COHERENCE= IF A STORY IS BELIEVABLE 3)characters reliable 4)no unrealistic suprises Narrative fidelity - underlying truthfulness of a story; a story is high in narrative fidelity if it rings true with the beliefs of the listener 1) Values 2) Relevance 3) Consequences NARRATIVE FIDELITY= IF THE PIECES OF A STORY ADD UP 4) Consistency 5) Transcendence BURKE’s RHETORIC WORK Understanding language as a form of action Human action dramatic form Human action rhetorical---Exe: performer & audience Pluralistic & dialectical program for analysis of human behavior 1) Language as a form of action
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Difference between a motion (behavior by external stimuli) & action (gestures of a social actor) o Distinction between action and motion is what separates humans from animals language moves from motion to action o Language makes humans agents rather than reactants
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