chem 113fc Study Guide.docx - General Formulas and...

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General Formulas and Structures o Molecular Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 o Condensed Formula: CH 2 CH 3 Structure omits vertical bonds and single bonds o Lewis Structure: e- dots and bonds o Skeletal Structure: uses lines for C and shows all atoms besides H Functional Groups o Exp. 1: Lipids 1. Be able to identify the structural characteristics of fats and oils and how they differ from phospholipids a. Fats/oils: 3 fatty acids, glycerol backbone b. Phospholipids: 2 fatty acids, glycerol backbone, phosphate group 2. Understand the difference between fats and oils a. Fats: saturated, no double bonds between carbons, can fit together well b. Oils: unsaturated, 1+ double bond between carbons, don’t fit together as well 3. Steps of rxn that yield a triglyceride a. Glycerol (OH) + 3 fatty acids (H) triglyceride + 3H 2 O 4. Trans/Cis isomers using C#:# notation and Δ notation a. b. C18:2 = 18 C total, 2 double bonds c. Δ = where double bond starts 5. Understand what an emulsion is and what emulsifiers (specifically lecithin) do in an oil/water mixture a. Fine dispersion of fat globules in another immiscible liquid b. Hydrophobic end of phospholipid faces the fat molecule while the hydrophilic head faces a water molecule
Exp. 2 The Chemistry of Cheese Making 1. Be able to explain a dipeptide formation
2. Know the different structures of a protein
3. What are the 3 conditions that lead to protein denaturing?
4. What is the function of rennet enzymes in the cheese making process?
5. What is the source of acid in the ricotta recipe?
Exp. 3 Sugar Chemistry

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