chapter_02_lec modified

chapter_02_lec modified - Atoms, Elements, and Minerals...

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Steve Kadel, Glendale Community College Atoms, Elements, and Minerals Physical Geology 11/e, Chapter 2
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Minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid, which is physically and chemically distinctive. Form in the geosphere (most minerals), hydrosphere (e.g., halite), biosphere (e.g., calcite), and even the atmosphere (e.g., water ice, as snow) Consistent and recognizable physical and chemical properties
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Atoms and Elements An element is a substance that can not be broken down into others by ordinary chemical reactions An atom is the smallest unit of a substance that retains the properties of that element Composed of 3 types of subatomic particles Protons (positively charged) Neutrons (zero net charge) Electrons (negatively charged) A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the properties of that substance
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Atomic Structure Protons and neutrons form the nucleus of an atom Represents tiny fraction of the volume at the center of an atom, but nearly all of the mass Electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete shells or energy levels Shells represent nearly all of the volume of an atom, but only a tiny fraction of the mass Numbers of electrons and protons are equal in a neutral atom Ordinary chemical reactions involve only outermost shell (valence) electrons
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course GEOL 1403 taught by Professor Mulcahey during the Spring '11 term at Lone Star College System.

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chapter_02_lec modified - Atoms, Elements, and Minerals...

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