chapter_10_le modified

chapter_10_le modified - Streams and Floods Physical...

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Steve Kadel, Glendale Community College Streams and Floods Physical Geology 11/e, Chapter 10
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Running Water Running water is the most important geologic agent in eroding, transporting and depositing sediment Nearly every landscape on Earth shows the results of stream erosion or deposition
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Hydrologic Cycle Hydrologic cycle - the movement and interchange of water between the sea, air, and land Evaporation Solar radiation provides energy Precipitation Rain or snow Transpiration Evaporation from plants Runoff Water flowing over land surface Infiltration Water soaking into the ground
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Running Water Stream - a body of running water, confined to a channel, that runs downhill under the influence of gravity Headwaters - upper part of stream near its source in the mountains Mouth - place where a stream enters sea, lake or larger stream Channel - a long, narrow depression eroded by a stream into rock or sediment Stream banks - sides of channel Streambed - bottom of the channel Floodplain - flat valley floor composed of sediment deposited by the stream Insert revised Fig. 10.2
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Drainage Basins Drainage basin - the total area drained by a stream and its tributaries Tributary - a small stream flowing into a larger one Divide - ridge or high ground that divides one drainage basin from another Continental Divide separates the streams that flow into the Pacific from those that flow into the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico
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Drainage Patterns Drainage pattern - the arrangement, in map view, of a stream and its tributaries Most tributaries join the main stream at an acute angle , forming a V or Y pointing downstream Dendritic - drainage pattern resembling the branches of a tree Radial pattern - streams diverge outward like the spokes of a wheel Typically form on conical mountains (volcanoes) Rectangular pattern - tributaries have frequent 90° bends and join other streams at right angles Trellis pattern - parallel streams with short tributaries meeting at right angles
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Stream Erosion Stream erosion (and deposition) controlled by flow velocity and discharge Stream velocity controlled by stream gradient (slope), channel shape and channel roughness Maximum velocity near center of channel Floods involve increased velocity and discharge (volume of water passing a particular point in a
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chapter_10_le modified - Streams and Floods Physical...

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