chapter_11_le modified

chapter_11_le modified - Ground Water Physical Geology...

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Steve Kadel, Glendale Community College Ground Water Physical Geology 11/e, Chapter 11
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Ground Water Ground Water lies beneath the ground surface, filling pores in sediments and sedimentary rocks and fractures in other rock types Represents 0.6% of the hydrosphere (35x the water in all lakes and rivers combined) Resupplied by slow infiltration of precipitation Generally cleaner than surface water Accessed by wells
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Porosity and Permeability Porosity - the percentage of rock or sediment that consists of voids or openings Measurement of a rock’s ability to hold water Loose sand has ~30-50% porosity Compacted sandstone may have only 10-20% porosity Permeability - the capacity of a rock to transmit fluid through pores and fractures Interconnectedness of pore spaces Most sandstones and conglomerates are porous and permeable Granites, schists, unfractured limestones are impermeable
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Subsurface zone in which all rock openings are filled with water is the saturated zone Top of the saturated zone is the water table Water level at surface of most lakes and rivers corresponds to local water table Above the water table is an unsaturated region called the vadose zone A perched water table is above and separated from main water table by an unsaturated zone Commonly produced by thin lenses of impermeable
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