chapter_16_le modified

chapter_16_le modified - Earthquakes Physical Geology 11/e...

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Steve Kadel, Glendale Community College Earthquakes Physical Geology 11/e, Chapter 16
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Earthquakes An earthquake is a trembling or shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy stored in the rocks beneath Earth’s surface Tectonic forces within the Earth produce stresses on rocks that eventually exceed their elastic limits, resulting in brittle failure Energy is released during earthquakes in the form of seismic waves Released from a position along a break between two rock masses (fault) Elastic rebound theory - earthquakes are a sudden release of strain progressively stored in rocks that bend until they finally break and move along a fault
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Seismic Waves Focus (or hypocenter ) - the point of initial breakage and movement along a fault, where seismic waves originate Epicenter - point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus Two types of seismic waves are produced during earthquakes Body waves - travel outward from the focus in all directions through Earth’s interior Surface waves - travel along Earth’s surface away from the epicenter
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Body Waves P wave - compressional (longitudinal) body wave in which rock vibrates back and forth parallel to the direction of wave propagation Fast (4 to 7 kms/sec) wave that is the first or primary wave to arrive at recording station following earthquake Pass through solids and fluids S wave - shearing (transverse) body wave in which rock vibrates back and forth perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation Slower (2 to 5 km/sec) wave that is the secondary wave to arrive at recording station following earthquake Pass through solids only
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Surface Waves Slowest type of seismic waves
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chapter_16_le modified - Earthquakes Physical Geology 11/e...

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