Urinary and Nervous System

Urinary and Nervous System - The Urinary & Nervous System...

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The Urinary & Nervous System And the Osmotic Regulation System
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• Osmotic pressure • Osmolarity • Tonicity Solutions may be hypertonic (high solute), hypotonic (low solute), or isotonic 3
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• Osmoconformers • Osmoregulators
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Freshwater vertebrates are hypertonic to their environment 5
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Marine vertebrates are hypotonic to their environment 6
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Osmoregulatory Organs • The kidneys of vertebrates consist of thousands of repeating units, nephrons The filtrate contains many small molecules, in addition to water and waste products 7
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Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney Mammals and birds are the only vertebrates that can produce urine that is hypertonic to body fluids 8
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Nitrogenous Wastes • Bony fishes and amphibian tadpoles • Elasmobranchs, adult amphibians, and mammals • Birds, terrestrial reptiles, and insects 10
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Nitrogenous Wastes • Mammals also produce uric acid, but from degradation of purines, not amino acids – Most have an enzyme called uricase, which converts uric acid into a more soluble derivative called allantoin 11
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Anatomy of the Urinary System Kidneys (urine formation) Lower Urinary Tract Ureters (2) Bladder (1) Urethra (1) (urine collection, storage, excretion)
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The Mammalian Kidney The kidney has three basic functions Filtration Reabsorption Secretion 13
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The Mammalian Kidney 14
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Functional Unit of the Kidney is the NEPHRON Each KIDNEY consists of 1 million NEPHRONS 15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glu0dzK4dbU
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• Proximal tubule • Loop of Henle • Distal Tubule • Collecting Ducts Each TUBULE consists of several segments: 16
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The Mammalian Kidney 17
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loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule in the cortex
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course BIO 1500 taught by Professor Pandolfi during the Winter '08 term at Wayne State University.

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Urinary and Nervous System - The Urinary & Nervous System...

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