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Urinary and Nervous System

Urinary and Nervous System - The Urinary Nervous System...

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The Urinary & Nervous System Chapter 51 & 44 And the Osmotic Regulation System
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Osmolarity & Osmotic Balance 2
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Osmolarity & Osmotic Balance Osmotic pressure • Osmolarity • Tonicity Solutions may be hypertonic (high solute), hypotonic (low solute), or isotonic 3
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Osmolarity & Osmotic Balance • Osmoconformers • Osmoregulators
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Osmolarity & Osmotic Balance Freshwater vertebrates are hypertonic to their environment 5
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Osmolarity & Osmotic Balance Marine vertebrates are hypotonic to their environment 6
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Osmoregulatory Organs The kidneys of vertebrates consist of thousands of repeating units, nephrons The filtrate contains many small molecules, in addition to water and waste products 7
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Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney Mammals and birds are the only vertebrates that can produce urine that is hypertonic to body fluids 8
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Nitrogenous Wastes Bony fishes and amphibian tadpoles Elasmobranchs, adult amphibians, and mammals Birds, terrestrial reptiles, and insects 10
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Nitrogenous Wastes Mammals also produce uric acid, but from degradation of purines, not amino acids – Most have an enzyme called uricase, which converts uric acid into a more soluble derivative called allantoin 11
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Anatomy of the Urinary System Kidneys (urine formation) Lower Urinary Tract Ureters (2) Bladder (1) Urethra (1) (urine collection, storage, excretion)
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The Mammalian Kidney The kidney has three basic functions Filtration Reabsorption Secretion 13
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The Mammalian Kidney 14
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Functional Unit of the Kidney is the NEPHRON (contains the Glomerulus & Tubule) Each KIDNEY consists of 1 million NEPHRONS 15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glu0dzK4dbU
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Proximal tubule Loop of Henle Distal Tubule Collecting Ducts Each TUBULE consists of several segments: 16
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The Mammalian Kidney 17
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The Mammalian Kidney loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule in the cortex Drains into a collecting duct 18 Renal pelvis Now called urine urinary bladder ureter ureter kidney kidney
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