bio 1510 notes - Characteristics of Living Systems: 1....

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Characteristics of Living Systems: 1. Organization Atoms –> molecules –> macromolecules –> tissues –> organs Cell = smallest unit of life 2. Energy requirement to do work - Stay organized - cellular work: intracellular muscle contraction, synthesis of biomolecules 3. Reproduction – like begets like 4. Sensitivity 5. Homeostasis 6. Adaptation Hierarchy of organization of the living: Cell= organism which are unicellular Ex: prokaryotes Protista – unicellular eukaryotes Proh: no membrane bound organelles Cells –> tissue, organs within an organism - Populations: organisms of same species, can interbreed and share same space. - Community: consists of populations of different species. - Ecosystems: populations or communities + environment - Biosphere: all ecosystems on the planet. Emergent properties due to interaction between molecule/ cells. Scientific approaches: Deductive reasoning – apply general principle to predict specific results Ex: prokaryote cell – without nucleus or organelles Inductive reasoning – specific observation that leads to formation of general principle e.g genes -> encode proteins -> regulatory - specific sequence at certain genes knows as homeolof - mutations -> misplaced appendage formation
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-> homeolof genes found in other organisms ( fungi, plant, animals) -> these act as controls during development, to assure correct developmental phase of specific cells. Observations -> questions that formulate a hypothesis that can be tested through experimentation Origin of microorganisms: 2 theories: spontaneous generation and germ theory Pasteur – scientist with tubular flasks experiment, seeing how the tube will affect the germs whether they would get inside or not Darwin – 5 year voyage, important stop was galipicos island. - Observation mode -> natural selection that operated on presence of variation Malthus – social hypothesis -> “survival of the fittest” Populations of species remain fairly constant – populations increase geometrically (death) Resources – arithmetic growth
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2/09/11 Cell- structure and function. All living things composed of cells.
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course BIO 1500 taught by Professor Pandolfi during the Winter '08 term at Wayne State University.

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bio 1510 notes - Characteristics of Living Systems: 1....

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