exam 3 1510 - In order to take an oxidized substance to a...

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In order to take an oxidized substance to a more reduced substance you need energy Spontaneous reactions are exorgonic because they release energy and they go to higher disorder Start on pg 124 Glucose is gotten by carbohydrates, lipids or proteins (by eating) Taking in food by ingesting, then digesting, then absorbing then you go to cellular level Glycolosis is sweet solution and you start with glucose ( cant be metabolized unless its activated)which happens thru ATP and it makes it a phosphorylation The lower it is it will go much faster with the catalyst, no energy involved Glucose is converted to fructose and makes it two 3 carbon molecules , wont use any energy at all except in presence of PI which transforms it into 3 phosphate triglycerides therefore (ATP synthesis is even) Total ATP synthesis = 4 Net ATP =2 which is Glycolysis (anaerobic) Muscle is highly anaerobic that goes to lactate and so is alcoholic fermentation which goes to alcohol Hexokaienase is a irreversible reaction (know what it does) need to know that we start 6 carbon sugar and glucose is more reduced than an acid Glycolysis stops because NADH needs to be regenerated in order to enter mitochondria Muscle uses Glycolysis to generate ATP since oxygen is low The yeast stops alcohol fermentation but it can also oxidizes it Substrate level phosphorylation Complete oxidation of glycolysis releases 686 kilocalories Know iso citrate found in citrus fruits Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of the cell. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm The kerbs cycle has 3 segments: Segment A which is Acetly CoA plus oxaloacetate which produces the 6-carbon citrate molecule. Segment B: citrate rearrangement and decarboxylation. Segment C: regeneration of oxaloacetate
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The kerbs cycle extracts electrons and synthesizes one ATP Glucose becomes CO2 and potential energy Following the electrons in the reactions reveals the direction of transfer where energy captured by NADH is not harvested all at once. The two electrons carried by NADH are passed along the electron transport chain The electron transport chain produces a proton gradient where the first of the proteins to receive the electrons are NADH dehydrogenase The gradient forms as electrons move through electron carriers Chemiosmosis utilizes the electrochemical gradient to produce ATP Chemiosmosis is the diffusion of ions across a selectively-permeable membrane. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respiration .Hydrogen ions (protons) will diffuse from an area of high proton concentration to an area of lower proton concentration ATP synthase is a molecular rotary motor ATP synthase is the enzyme that makes ATP by chemiosmosis. It allows protons to pass through the membrane using the kinetic energy to phosphorylate ADP making ATP. The generation of
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exam 3 1510 - In order to take an oxidized substance to a...

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