Genetic Applications - Genetics Applications 1 What is...

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Genetics Applications 1
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What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology is a collection of laboratory  techniques that involve the direct manipulation of  an organism’s DNA. Biotechnology has allowed for: Cheaper and more effective drugs The correction of genetic mutation The creation of cells that can clean-up  environmental messes An increase in agricultural productivity 2
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Understanding biotechnology Biotechnology is based on our understanding of the structure of DNA. In the nucleus, chromosomes are made of DNA Histone proteins DNA is the genetic material of the cell. The information is in the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA. Genes are regions of DNA that encode for specific proteins. Proteins produce the characteristics of cells (phenotype). Biotechnology involves the manipulation of DNA in order to change phenotype. 3
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Comparing DNA Organisms that have similar phenotypes have similar DNA sequences. DNA between two organisms can be compared in a couple of different ways: DNA fingerprinting DNA sequencing 4
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DNA fingerprinting Uniquely identifies individuals on the basis of DNA fragment lengths. Fragments are generated by restriction enzymes that cut DNA at specific sites. Each individual’s DNA is different enough that these enzymes will generate different lengths of fragments in two different individuals. 5
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Variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) Variable number tandem repeats are regions of DNA that are repetitive sequences. Each person has a slightly different number of repeats. Therefore, if these regions are cut with restriction enzymes, each person will have a different set of fragments. 6
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Other techniques used in DNA fingerprinting Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA replication in a test tube Uses primers that dictate the region of DNA to be copied Makes many copies of a particular segment of DNA 7
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 8
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Other techniques used in DNA fingerprinting Electrophoresis A way to separate DNA fragments based on their length DNA sample is loaded into a gel matrix and an electrical current is applied.
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