Cell Bio Test 2 Notes - Cell Bio Test 2 Notes Lecture 8 ETC...

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Cell Bio Test 2 Notes Lecture 8 ETC Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 ATP 2 NADH 6 ATP PDH 2 NADH 6 ATP Krebs 2 GTP 2 GTP 6 NADH 18 ATP 2 FADH2 4 ATP FADH2 does not have a binding site on complex I (it is on complex II) Total of 38 ATP made 1800s- knew mitochondria produced energy (absorbed light) Specific pigments called cytochromes absorb light and contain metals such as Fe or Cu - Fe 2 + (ferrous) (oxidized stat e) ↔ Fe 3 + (ferric) (reduced state) - Converting back and forth m oves electrons Cytochrome Complex - Contain pigm ents - Cytochrom es within complex: B, C, C1, A, A3
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- 4 different complexes - Complex 1 Binding site for NADH  converts it to NAD+ and electron pair binds to complex (converts from oxidized to  reduced state) complex is now electronegative and attracts protons that bind transiently/quickly protons leave to cytosol (2 for every electron pair) electrons jump to next complex total of 6 protons move from matrix to cytosol protons cannot move backwards Molecular O2 takes electrons off complex 4 then hydrogen binds and forms metabolic  water (why we need oxygen) Sulfur can also be a terminal electron acceptor to make sulfide (such as in the heart) No ATP is formed (only oxidized NADH) and lost 50 kcal
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Chemical Gradient of Protons (Chemiosmotic Difference) - Potential e nergy - Left with charge differences (like m aking a battery) - Want to diffuse but m e m brane betwe en cytosol a nd m atrix is tough - Need gates/pores in inner m e m brane Formed by F1ATPase protein Only 1 type of ion can move through- proton Proton moves as it passes through and causes F1ATPase to move and causes work to make ATP molecules 2 protons make 1 ATP Would go to equilibrium except process is continuous 1 NADH= 6 protons -> 3 ATPs Use the energy to make proteins Lecture 9 mRNA, rRNA, tRNA small nuclear RNA (snRNA) heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) - signal reception a nd protein secretion - cytoplasmic function - not involved in synthesis RNA Polymerase - Eukaryotes have atleast 3 large RNA polym erases (I, II, and III) - Big e nough so that it covers a bout 60 base pairs when bound to DNA - Polymerase I- transcribes large rRNA molecules
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- Polymerase II- transcribes mRNA and snRNA - Polymerase III- tRNA and small rRNA The promoter attracts the polymerase and tells it what the first nucleotide of the gene to be transcribed is (so that the polymerase can find it) Either strand can be read (but only 5 to 3) and only 1 at a time The one that is read is the coding strand and always contains the promoter The polymerase binds and separates DNA strands - Requires NRG - NRG obtained from ATP, GTP, etc a nd converted to AMP, GMP, etc - The obtained m onophosphate ribonucleotides are used to creat e the RNA strand - Polymerase binds to promoter or coding strand
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Cell Bio Test 2 Notes - Cell Bio Test 2 Notes Lecture 8 ETC...

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