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Unformatted text preview: See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Youth fitness: the complete guide to sports and fitness for kids and teens Book · January 2013 CITATIONS READS 0 2,851 1 author: Thomas Fahey California State University, Chico 49 PUBLICATIONS 1,391 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Core Concepts in Health, NY: McGraw Hill View project Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance View project All content following this page was uploaded by Thomas Fahey on 25 November 2015. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. Youth Fitness The Complete Guide to Sports and Fitness for Kids and Teens Dr. Thomas D. Fahey, EdD Youth Fitness Trainer: The Complete Guide to Sports and Fitness for Kids and Teens (Third Edition) Official Course Text for: International Sports Sciences Association Youth Fitness Trainer program 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 2013 Thomas D. Fahey. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as may be expressly permitted by 1976 Copyright Act or in writing by the Publisher. Direct all correspondence and inquiries to: International Sports Sciences Association 1015 Mark Avenue • Carpinteria, CA 93013 (800) 892-4772 • (805) 745-8111 • (805) 745-8119 fax ISSAonline.edu DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY This text is informational only. The data and information contained herein are based upon information from various published as well as unpublished sources and merely represents training, health and nutrition literature and practice as summarized by the authors and editors. The publisher of this study guide makes no warranties, expressed or implied, regarding the currency, completeness or scientific accuracy of this information, nor does it warrant the fitness of the information for any particular purpose. The information is not intended for use in connection with the sale of any product. Any claims or presentations regarding any specific products or brand names are strictly the responsibility of the product owners or manufacturers. This summary of information from unpublished sources, books, research journals and articles is not intended to replace the advice or attention of health care professionals. It is not intended to direct their behavior or replace their independent professional judgement. If you have a problem with your health, or before you embark on any health, fitness or sports training programs, seek clearance from a qualified health care professional. About the Author | iii About the Author Former youth sport and university team coach Dr. Thomas D. Fahey, EdD, received his Doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley, specializing in exercise physiology and motor development. A college All-American track and field athlete, Dr. Fahey continued to pursue athletic excellence after graduation and succeeded as Masters World Champion in the discus throw (and two silver medals), nine-time US masters national champion, and three-time gold medal winner in Master’s World Games. Dr. Fahey has authored 20 books on exercise physiology, wellness, and strength, and has contributed to hundreds of scientific journals and bodybuilding and fitness magazines. In 2005, he was named the outstanding professor at California State University, Chico. International Sports Sciences Association Introduction: Personal Training for Youth Fitness and Sports, 1 Section 2: Designing Training Programs For Children, 99 Introduction The Training Response: Principles of Training & Adaptation, 101 Summary Section 1: Basics of Exercise Physiology, 13 Growth and Development, 15 Exercise and Growth Summary Metabolism, 27 Energy Management and Exercise Metabolism and the Young Person Summary Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Exercise Physiology, 37 The Pulmonary System and Exercise The Heart, Blood Vessels, and Exercise Summary Principles of Training Develop the Body to Suit the Lifestyle Summary Endurance Fitness, 117 Goals Measuring Endurance Fitness Basic Endurance Fitness for Health Endurance Program for Performance-Level Physical Fitness Summary Flexibility, 129 What Determines Flexibility? Types of Stretching Techniques Benefits of Flexibility and Stretching Exercises Muscle Physiology, 49 Principles of Flexibility Muscle Strength: Size, Neural Activation, Elastic Recoil, and Skill Basic Stretching Exercises Muscle and the Nervous System Elastic Muscle Energy Summary Temperature Regulation, 61 Principles of Temperature Regulation Summary Exercise in the Heat and Cold, 69 Exercise in the Heat Exercise in the Cold Summary Obesity in Children & Measuring Body Composition, 79 Causes of Childhood Obesity Weight Regulation in Children Measuring Body Composition in Young People Composition of the Human Body Common Techniques to Assess Body Composition Summary Summary Muscle Strength, 143 Developing Basic Movement Skills for Strength Training Basic Weight Training Exercises Summary Jumping and Plyometrics, 163 Jumping and Plyometrics Summary Power and Speed, 175 Elements of Power Sprinting Power Training Agility Functional Training Olympic Weight Lifting Summary Assessing Fitness in Children, 195 Section 4: Sports Nutrition, 247 The President’s Challenge: Physical Activity and Fitness Program Nutrition for Health and Performance, 249 Measuring Endurance Fitness Measuring for Power Measuring for Speed Measuring for Strength Predicting One-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) from Multiple Repetitions Maintaining a Good Measurement Program Genetic Testing in Children Summary Structuring the Program, 219 Developmentally Appropriate Training Programs Summary Section 3: Psychology of the Young Athlete, 227 Helping the Child Enjoy Sports and Physical Activity, 229 Essential Nutrients The Healthy, High Performance Diet and MyPlate Diet, Exercise, and Weight Control Summary Ergogenic Aids: Drugs and Supplements, 263 Ethics of Ergogenic Aids Use in Children’s Sports Common Drugs and Supplements Available to Young Athletes Summary Section 5: Children and Athletic Injuries, 275 Preventing Injuries, 277 Preventing Injuries Summary Common Injuries in Children’s Sports, 285 Injuries to Joints and Muscles How to Select the Right Sport Overuse Injuries Summary Imbalance Injuries Psychology of the Champion, 237 Growth Plate Injuries The Winning Edge The Psychology of the Champion Athlete The Elements of Success Measuring Anxiety in Athletes Summary Other Conditions Summary References, 295 Glossary, 319 Topics covered in this Unit Introduction: Personal Training for Youth Fitness and Sports Prerequisite Knowledge Recruiting Clients Working with Clients Summary Introduction Personal Training for Youth Fitness and Sports 2 | Introduction Key Terms obesity speed weight training Osgood-Schlatter’s disease balance plyometrics motor development skill interval training overload mean skinfold thickness specificity standard deviation underwater weighing individual differences percentile rank Bodpod reversibility correlation bioelectrical impedance periodization regression repetition maximum (RM) rest motor learning muscle endurance overtraining transfer flexibility stimulus variability self-image range of motion (ROM) power transference agility body composition Introduction Children and adolescents are natural markets for personal trainers. Many young people participate in competitive athletics. They want to achieve health, fitness, and athletic success, and their parents support these goals. Children can benefit from the services of a personal trainer who has specific knowledge about youth fitness and performance, as well as more general knowledge of anatomy, physiology, exercise physiology, performance measurement, training, sports psychology, and sports nutrition. ­ Personal trainers possess an impressive array of training, nutritional, and psychological tools to help young athletes excel. Unfortunately, coaches in high school and sports clubs are often poorly trained because of the sorry state of coaching education in the majority of American colleges and universities. This presents opportunities for personal trainers to fill the gap and help motivate young athletes to “be the best that they can be” on and off the playing field. obesity: Excess bodyfat, typically defined as a bodyfat content that exceeds 20 percent in males and 30 percent in females. America is faced with an obesity epidemic that includes our youth. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ) report that 18 percent of school-aged children are obese and that the obesity rate exceeds 20 percent in nine states. Physical education programs in the schools continue to remain underfunded and often are administered by teachers with little training or practical experience in sports, physical training, and exercise physiology. Unfortunately, many children and adolescents are physically inactive; they will benefit from the services of a qualified personal trainer. Special youth populations also are potential clients. Children with diabetes, asthma, spinal cord injury, amputation, mental retardation, or cerebral palsy will benefit from the services of a knowledgeable trainer. Families of these children may have discretionary income that could pay for your services. You could help these young people improve their physical capacities for sport or for health and well-being. Youth Fitness Introduction: Personal Training for Youth Fitness and Sports | 3 Prerequisite Knowledge Children are not miniature adults. You cannot use the same training methods or motivational techniques on growing children as you do with mature adults. Children and adults are different anatomically, physiologically, and emotionally. Anatomy and Physiology Personal trainers must have a thorough understanding of anatomy and physiology. You should know the major muscles of the body and how they work and understand metabolism—how the body converts food energy into other forms of energy the body uses at rest and during exercise. Know the function and regulation of the lungs, heart, blood vessels, hormones, brain, and nerves, including the weight control and temperature regulation systems at rest and during exercise. Children have immature skeletons. Their bones will not mature until 14 to 22 years of age, depending on gender and maturational levels. In girls, exercising during childhood will critically impact bone health that can last a lifetime. Children and adolescents sustain different types of athletic injuries from adults, and as such, remain particularly vulnerable to growth-related overuse injuries (e.g., Osgood-Schlatter’s disease; ). Trainers must take great care when using high intensity training methods common in older athletes. Children have immature temperature regulation systems. They have a large surface area in comparison to their muscle mass, which makes them more susceptible to cold injury. Also, children do not sweat as much as adults do, so they are more prone to heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Their relatively low muscle mass and immature hormone systems make it more difficult for them to optimally develop speed and power. Breathing and heart responses during exercise remain much different than in adults, which also affects their capacity for moderate to high levels of intense exercise. Motor Development Growth and development also influence the capacity to learn motor skills. For example, rapid growth during puberty makes it difficult to achieve stability in basic sports skills. Early maturers will outperform late bloomers—at least initially. In contrast, the late maturing athlete often outperforms the early maturer in high school, college, or beyond. Sports skill development in children depends on maturation of the brain and nervous system, muscles, temperature regulation, and endocrine systems. The personal trainer should know developmentally appropriate training techniques that develop fitness for sports without precipitating injuries. Principles of Training Changes in training status improve the fitness and capacity of the physiological systems. Knowledge of muscle, cardiopulmonary, and metabolic physiology and how they adapt to training is critical for any personal trainer or fitness specialist. Trainers must understand basic principles of fitness training such as, overload, specificity, wholebody functional training, individual differences, reversibility, periodization, rest, overtraining, and stimulus variability. Trainers also should know how to achieve training effects quickly, efficiently, and without injury. Osgood-Schlatter’s disease: Inflammation of the region where the patellar tendon inserts into the tibia. This condition is relatively common in adolescents. motor development: How children develop and learn motor tasks. overload: Progressively increasing exercise stress during training. specificity: Body adapts to the nature of the stressor. individual differences: People respond differently to the same stressors; largely due to genetic factors. reversibility: Loss of fitness gains with removal of the stress of exercise. periodization: Cycling the volume and intensity of training to maximize the rate of adaptation. rest: Amount of time spent not exercising between sets or workouts. Rest is essential for adaptation and should be incorporated into every training program. overtraining: Imbalance between training and recovery. stimulus variability: Changing the nature of the exercise stress. This may include varying the intensity and volume of exercise or performing different modes of exercise. International Sports Sciences Association 4 | Introduction Development of Health and Performance Fitness Components power: Work per unit of time. From a practical standpoint, defined as ability to exert force rapidly. It is difficult to separate health­–and performance­–related physical fitness. Certainly they overlap. For simplicity, health­–related fitness components include endurance, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Performance-related fitness includes all of the above in addition to power, agility, speed, balance, and skill. The skilled personal trainer should understand the physiology of each fitness component and know training techniques for developing them in children and adults. agility: Ability to change directions rapidly. Sports Nutrition speed: Ability to move quickly. mean: Measure of central tendency or average. Nutrition supplies the energy necessary for growth and fuels metabolism during exercise. Twenty years ago, the best advice a coach could give a young athlete was to eat a wellbalanced diet containing a variety of foods. This is still good advice. In addition, sports scientists have developed many nutritional techniques to improve performance. Sports drinks, dietary composition, nutrient timing, and some dietary supplements can boost performance under a variety of circumstances. Personal trainers should be able to design diets for young athletes that address the nutritional needs of growth and also provide the nutrients to improve performance. standard deviation: Measure of variability used to describe a set of data. Measurement balance: Ability to remain steady and under control from a moving or stationary base. skill: Ability to perform a discrete motor task. percentile rank: Percent of scores falling above and below a specific point. correlation: Measure of the degree of relationship or association between two variables such as height versus weight or maximum arm strength versus maximum leg strength. Personal trainers should use scientific methods if they want to be effective. This involves using valid measurement tools to measure weaknesses in fitness and improvements in the training program. You should know basic tests to assess fitness in terms of both its health and its performance components, and you should be able to relate these things to performance in the athlete’s sport. You should also become familiar with the following basic statistical terms: mean, standard deviation, percentile rank, correlation, and regression. Motor Learning regression: Process for determining the extent of relationship or prediction between an established variable (for example, maximum strength) and one or more independent variables (for example, height, weight, arm length, forearm and biceps girth). Motor learning involves the study of how people learn physical skills. Personal trainers attempt to make improvements in fitness that can be transferred to faster and more powerful sports performances. Strength and power transfer is not automatic. Simply increasing the amount of weight an athlete bench presses or squats does not automatically improve power in football, track, or basketball. The newly acquired strength must be integrated into the sports movements. Personal trainers should understand how athletes best learn sports skills and how specific training exercises affect learning them. motor learning: Study of how people learn physical skills. Psychology of the Child Athlete transfer: Ability to incorporate strength or fitness developed in training to improved performance in sports skills. Youth Fitness Success in a sport or an exercise program requires dedication and motivation. Personal trainers can help young athletes succeed by believing in them, helping them focus on goals, and providing them with concrete methods to improve performance. Growing up is difficult for all young people. The trainer can help the young athlete maintain a balanced life. Introduction: Personal Training for Youth Fitness and Sports | 5 Highly motivated parents are both a boon and bane of the trainer. You need parents to provide opportunities for young athletes such as motivating children, getting them to practice, and hiring the services of a personal trainer. Nevertheless, the parent-trainer relationship can be difficult and counterproductive. Parents often try to live through their kids, which can create unacceptable or difficult circumstances for young athletes. The personal trainer must know enough about sports psychology to help kids and their parents cope with the stresses of sport. You can help them keep sports in its proper perspective and ensure that training for athletics remains a healthy, positive experience. Prevention and Treatment of Athletic Injuries A fine line often separates the improved fitness gained from training and the breakdown and injury that can be caused by overtraining. The personal trainer must know how much training causes positive adaptation and how much is excessive. Injuries do occur in sports. Part of your job as personal trainer is to work around the injury to maintain fitness or at least prevent deterioration. You should also know basic rehabilitation exercises for major injuries and the role of conditioning in injury prevention. Personal trainers must also know emergency medical procedures to be prepared for the unlikely event of a child suffering from a serious medical condition or sustaining a serious injury. You must keep meticulous records of your injury management procedures for each client to protect yourself from a lawsuit. Most personal trainers get clients through health clubs, by word of mouth, or through their private office or home practice. Finding clients who are young athletes is not much different, except that most young athletes do not belong to health clubs. They do, however, participate on club and school teams. Your best bet is to obtain the endorsement or at least passive cooperation of the coach. People can also become aware of your services through blogs, Internet sites, newspaper advertising, bulletin boards, and brochures. The Brochure A good brochure is vital to any personal trainer. Handing out a well-produced brochur...
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