CH115 chapter 3 - Molecular compounds Molecular compound A...

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Molecular compounds Molecular compound – A unit of matter in which atoms of two or more elements are chemically (covalently) bonded.
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Molecular formulas Molecular formula – Specifies the number of atoms of each element in a molecule C 6 H 12 O 6 Six carbon atoms Twelve hydrogen atoms Six oxygen atoms
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Structural formulas Structural formula – Shows how different atoms are bound to each other. Ethane Cyclohexane
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Examples Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ammonia NH 3 Dihydrogen sulfide H 2 S
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Examples Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula Carbon tetrachloride CCl 4 Propane C 3 H 8
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Condensed formulas Condensed formula – A molecular formula written in a way that shows how atoms are grouped together in a molecule. C 4 H 10 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Molecular formula Condensed formula
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Organic compounds Organic compound – A compound that contains carbon.
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Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons – Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.
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Alkanes Alkanes – Hydrocarbons that only have single bonds between carbon atoms.
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Isomers Isomers – Compounds with the same molecular formula but different atomic arrangements. Constitutional isomers – Compounds with the same molecular formula that differ in the order in which their atoms are bonded.
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Straight-chain alkanes These are alkanes that exist as “linear” chains.
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Branched alkanes These are constitutional isomers of straight- chain alkanes in which at least one carbon atom is bound to 3 or 4 other carbon atoms.
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Cyclic alkanes These are alkanes that have a ring. They are not constitutional isomers of straight- chain alkanes.
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The molecular formulas for straight-chain and branched alkanes follow the format C n H 2 n +2 The molecular formulas for cyclic alkanes follow the format C n H 2n
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Nomenclature (straight-chain) Molecular Formula Name Molecular Formula Name CH 4 Methane C 6 H 14 Hexane C 2 H 6 Ethane C 7 H 16 Heptane C 3 H 8 Propane C 8 H 18 Octane C 4 H 10 Butane C 9 H 20 Nonane C 5 H 12 Pentane C 10 H 22 Decane
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Nomenclature (branched) Find the longest chain and name it according
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2011 for the course CH 115 taught by Professor Dontknow during the Spring '08 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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CH115 chapter 3 - Molecular compounds Molecular compound A...

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