research ethics 1 - ESample Population xample Persons with...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Example: Persons with AIDS Control Group Placebo Experimental Group Experimental Drug X Sample Population PHL116 Research Ethics 1 I. Scientific Research – Some Historical Cases (Munson Book) 1. Nuremberg (WWII – Nazi Germany) – cruel and barbaric experiments conducted on Jews in Nuremberg Germany -- 1947, the physicians who conducted these experiments were convicted by an international tribunal, for taking part “in medical experiments without the subjects’ consent”. Out of this trial came the Nuremberg Code, which specifies strict guidelines for informed consent. -Additional piece of historical information: Pernkopf Anatomy: were the cadavers of Nazi war victims used to gain anatomical information about the human body, and should the book containing such information be prohibited from being used, because of the way in which the information was obtained? (p 40-41 Munson) Is it legitimate to use scientific data that has been obtained in an immoral way, if it benefits people? Cases all during Nuremberg trial and Post-Nuremburg: 2. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment – 1942-1972 – Tuskegee Institute, Macon County, Alabama – another case concerning informed consent, involving cruel treatment of African American minority. 3. Cold-War Radiation Experiments – host of experiments conducted from 1940 – 1974 to test the biological effects of high doses of radiation, to determine 1.) the effect of radiation on fetal development, sperm production, and nutrition and metabolism as well as the 2.) the rate at which radioactive substances are absorbed by the body. Again, no informed consent, women and children were vulnerable populations affected. 4. Willowbrook Hepatitis Experiments – deliberate infection of mentally retarded children at Willowbrook State School in Staten Island with viral hepatitis in order to study the course of the illness. Parents did not provide informed consent. Children were the vulnerable population affected. II. Recent Medical Research 1. First Face Transplant Surgery (2005) : 38-year old Woman, Isabelle Denoire, a woman who passed out in an attempt to commit suicide by overdose, was badly disfigured by a dog who ripped off part of her face (lips, nose, chin). She had to wear a face mask and she had trouble eating. Dr. Bernard Devauchelle, who had preformed the first hand transplant some years prior took her to be an excellent candidate for a partial face transplant. The surgery was incredibly risky—first, it is an intricate procedure to connect the nerve and musculature of new skin to the remaining skin. Second, the possibility of the body rejecting the new skin as “foreign” required that Denoire take a battery of immuno-suppressive drugs for the rest of her life that may increase her chances of getting cancer. (She also had to have bone marrow injections from the donor). Furthermore, the new face would not look like her old face or the face of the dead woman whose face she received. In addition the Dr. would receive fame for
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 06/15/2011 for the course PHL 116 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '09 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Page1 / 7

research ethics 1 - ESample Population xample Persons with...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online