CAA History - 3/28/11 History of Air Pollu3on...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/28/11 History of Air Pollu3on Regula3ons GEOG 371 March 29, 2011 History of Air Pollu.on Before 1200 Egypt: Mummies have traces of anthracosis, sugges3ng long ­term exposure to indoor smoke. Greece: Town leaders responsible for keeping odors out of town. Rome: Air pollu3on resulted in civil lawsuits. Rome plagued with thousands of wood ­ burning fires, blackened buildings. c. AD 61. Seneca (statesman; Nero s tutor) As soon as I had goYen out of the heavy air of Rome and from the s3nk of the smoky chimneys thereof, which being s3rred, poured forth whatever pes3len3al vapors and soot they had enclosed in them, I felt an altera3on of my disposi3on. 1 3/28/11 History of Air Pollu.on 1200 ­1329 Sea coal introduced 1228 1285 King Edward I mandates first air pollu3on commission 1306: King Edward I bans the use of coal in lime kilns. Punishment was grievous ransom 1329: Ban lost its effect 13th ­18th centuries Coal burning expansion in lime kilns, forges, glass furnaces, brick furnaces, breweries, homes 1661 John Evelyn …most Londoners breathe nothing but an impure and thick mist, accompanied by a fuliginous and filthy vapour, corrup3ng the lungs. Late 1600s Air pollu3on damaged building exteriors so significantly that many leases required repain3ng three 3mes per year. Industrial Revolu.on and the Steam Engine 1700 ­1840 : Industrial Revolu3on Unprecdented growth in industry Growth in average income and popula3on Transis3on from manual/animal labor to machine ­based manufactoring  increase in use of refined coal 1800 ­1900: 100 ­fold increase in coal combus3on; pollu3on deaths Great Britain 4 ­7 x those worldwide Steam Engine Thomas Savery (1650 ­1715) English engineer 1698: Patented first prac3cal steam engine. It replaced horses for pumping water out of coal mines. Did not work well under high pressure. Thomas Newcomen (1663 ­1729) English engineer 1712: Overcame some of problems of Savery s engine. Pumped water out of mines and powered waterwheels. Captured 1% of maximum energy. 2 3/28/11 Steam Engine James WaY (1736 ­1819) Scofsh engineer and inventor 1763: Given a Newcomen engine to repair. 1769: Patented separate chamber for condensing steam Developed engines in which steam supplied to both sides of piston and in which mo3ons were circular versus up and down WaY s engines s3ll only 5% efficient. Pre  ­1900 Regula.on in the U.K. 1843: CommiYee inves3gates pollu3on from furnaces and boilers 1843: 1845: Bills brought before Parliament to limit pollu3on defeated 1845: Railway Clauses Act: Engines must consume own smoke 1846: Public health bill passed requiring smoke reduc3ons from furnaces/boilers. Clause removed following industry pressure 1851: Emission clause in London sewer bill; enforced by cita3on 1853: Smoke Nuisance Abatement Act. Enforced aher many years 1863: Alkali Act: reduced HCl emission during soap produc3on 1858: 1866: Sanitary Acts contained air pollu3on legisla3on 1875: 1891: Public Health Acts 3 3/28/11 Pre ­ 1900 Regula.on in the U.S. 1869: PiYsburgh ordinance outlawing burning of soh coal in locomo3ves within city limits. Not enforced. 1881: Cincinna3 law required smoke reduc3ons and appointment of smoke inspector. Not enforced, but three main causes of death in Cincinna3 in 1886 were lung ­related: tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchi3s. 1881: Chicago smoke ­reduc3on law. Supported by judiciary but not enforced. 1893: St. Louis city council outlawed dense black or thick gray smoke and appointed inspector. Ordinance overturned by Missouri Supreme Court in 1897 as wholly unreasonable. ~1900 – What happened? 4 3/28/11 Los Angeles, California (December 3, 1909) Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D. C. Smog Bothers Pedestrians, Los Angeles (1950s) Hollywood Ci3zens News Collec3on, Los Angeles Public Library 5 3/28/11 Noon.me, Donora, Pennsylvania, October 29, 1948 Copyright Photo Archive/PiYsburgh Post ­GazeYe, 2001. All rights reserved London ­Type Smog London ­type smog: Arises from coal ­ and chemical ­combus3on smoke in presence of fog or low ­lying temperature inversion. London December 1873 (270 ­700 excess deaths) January 1880 (700 ­1100) December 1892 (1000) November 1948 (300) December 1952 (4000) January 1956 (480) December 1957 (300 ­800) December 1962 (340 ­700) 6 3/28/11 Regula.ons Post 1900 1926: London Smoke Abatement Act 1910 MassachuseYs first state regula3on: Boston smoke ordinance. c. 1910. First federal involvement: Office of Air Pollu3on in Department of Interior s Bureau of Mines. Office eliminated shortly thereaher. 1920: Air pollu3on ordinances in 175 US ci3es 1940: Ordinances in 200 US ci3es. 1947: LAAPCD formed – first permifng on major industries at the county level 1952: Haagen ­Smit discovers the ozone forma3on mechanism Air Pollu.on Laws 1950s U.S. Air Pollu3on Control Act of 1955 Federal technical assistance to state air pollu3on control Funding of Public Health Service for studies of air pollu3on Amended 1960 to study health effects of automobile exhaust Did not impose regula3ons on air pollu3on Delegated regula3on to state and local level English Clean Air Act of 1956 Controlled household, industrial dark smoke emission in London No control of sulfur dioxide Smokeless zones in London. Reloca3on of many power plants to rural areas 1959 California Motor Vehicle Control Board set first automobile emissions standards APCA was extended by 4 years 7 3/28/11 The 60’s Clear Air Act of 1963 (CAA63) Gave federal government authority to regulate interstate pollu3on Emission standards for sta3onary sources (power plants, steel) No automobile controls Motor Vehicle Air Pollu3on Control Act of 1965 First regula3on of automobiles at federal level Emission standards to reduce tailpipe HCs 72%, CO(g) 56% For 1968 model cars; paYerned aher California for 1966 cars More than half of 1968 and 1969 cars did not meet standards Air Quality Act of 1967 U.S. divided into Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR) Required publica3on of Air Quality Criteria (AQC) reports State Implementa3on Plans (SIP) Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 Crea3on of U. S. Environmental Protec3on Agency (USEPA) Na3onal Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) AYainment/Non AYainment areas New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Na3onal Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAPS) Congressional control of automobile emissions 8 3/28/11 Cataly.c Converter 1975: Single ­bed catalyst Converts CO(g) and HCs to CO2(g) 1976: Duel ­bed catalyst Addi3onal bed to convert NOx(g) to N2(g) 1979: Three ­way catalyst Converts CO(g), HCs, NOx(g) in single bed Exhaust gas travels for 50 milliseconds over the metals pla3num/palladium or pla3num/ rhodium, which are spread over ceramic or metallic honeycombs to increase surface area Cataly3c converter  ­ ­> significant reduc3on in pollutant gases Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 Preven3on of Significant Deteriora3on (PSD) in areas already under aYainment. Three classes of regions designated: Class I: Pris3ne areas (parks, wilderness) no new sources Class II: Moderate changes allowed but regula3ons desired Class III: Major growth allowed if NAAQS not exceeded Computer modeling mandated to check whether new pollu3on sources might result in standard exceedence Control of CFCs 9 3/28/11 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 1990: 96 ci3es s3ll in viola3on of ozone NAAQS  ­ ­> nonaYainment areas divided into six categories Extreme: Los Angeles: must aYain by 2010 Severe: Bal3more, New York: must aYain by 2007 Severe: Chicago, Houston,…: must aYain by 2005 New sources in nonaYainment areas must achieve Lowest Achievable Emissions Rate (LAER) by adop3ng Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (RACT) Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) Emission limits for 189 toxic chemicals using Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACTs) More control of CFCs NAAQS over .me 1970: CO(g), NO2(g), SO2(g), TSP, HC, photochemical oxidants 1976: Pb(s) 1979: O3(g)  replaced photochemical oxidants 1983: TSP PM10, HC removed 1997: PM2.5 Other things regulated: air toxics (solvents, fuels, metals, etc.) haze (visibility) 10 3/28/11 Current standards Other Legisla3ve Issues •  Interstate Transport •  Interna3onal Transport •  Global Issues –  Montreal Protocol –  Kyoto Protocol 11 3/28/11 Per Capita and Na.onal Emissions of Carbon (C) in CO2(g) in 1997 United Kingdom Taiwan Poland Japan South Korea Russia Germany Belgium Netherlands Denmark North Korea Czech Republic Saudi Arabia Canada Australia United States Singapore Kuwait United Arab Emirates Qatar Figure 12.23 0 5 10 15 20 Bar 1: National emissions (hundred-million tons of C per year) Bar 2: Per capita emissions (tons of C per person per year) Worldwide Pollu.on Trends/Control Canada Regula3ons rou3nely imposed through Environment Canada. Acid deposi3on a problem in east. Mexico Mexico City the most populous city worldwide and most dangerous for children in terms of air pollu3on. City surrounded by mountains and under high pressure. Brazil Ethanol fuel program since 1973  ­ ­> PAN problems Chile San3ago has high par3cle concentra3ons 12 3/28/11 Worldwide Pollu.on Trends/Control European Union (originally European Community in 1957) Direc3ve Pollu3on regula3on binding on all member na3ons but takes into account needs of specific country. Regula3on Law applied uniformly to all member na3ons Decision Direc3on for specific member na3on United Kingdom 1956 United Kingdom Clean Air Act Reduced dark smoke in London 1968 United Kingdom Clean Air Act Required tall chimneys for industry 1972. Joined European Union Worldwide Pollu.on Trends/Control France Air pollu3on monitoring beginning in 1956 Heavy reliance on nuclear power Spain Vehicles a large source of pollu3on Heavy reliance on fossil energy Germany 1800s to 1980s, coal the largest source of energy in Germany Coal from Ruhr region (high in sulfur) Coal burning in 1920s ­1980s caused significant pollu3on East Germany, lignite burned. Sulfur triangle between Dresden, Prague, Krakow 7000 deaths/year in mid 1970s due to air pollu3on in triangle Reunifica3on  ­ ­> lignite mines/plants shut down Today, strong wind industry 13 3/28/11 Worldwide Pollu.on Trends/Control Russia Air pollu3on levels exceed standards for more than 65 million About 14,000 deaths in 1999 due to pollu3on 15% of Russian territory ecologically unfavorable Israel Sets standards similar to to E.U. standards Egypt Lead contamina3on a problem in Cairo Iran Tehran among most polluted ci3es worldwide India 1880s to today, CalcuYa (near coal fields) most polluted city. Colonial regula3on reduced smoke emission 1910s ­1950s Today, New Delhi and CalcuYa significantly polluted Indoor burning of biomass and coal a major problem Worldwide Pollu.on Trends/Control China Contains 7 out of 10 most polluted ci3es worldwide Two ­thirds of 338 ci3es monitored are polluted Largest producer/consumer of coal Dust from Gobi Desert a problem  ­ reaches U.S. in April Indoor burning of coal and biomass a major problem Air pollu3on regula3ons in 1987, 1995, 2000 Japan 17th century to 1925, copper mining pollu3on Shikoku Island Early 1900s expansion of industry  ­ ­> coal pollu3on Osaka 1970s, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Tokyo very polluted Regula3ons became stronger star3ng in 1980s South Africa Significant coal produc3on, biomass burning Cons3tu3on guarantees right to healthy environment Australia Coal burning, but rela3vely clean due to low popula3on 14 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2011 for the course GEOG 371 taught by Professor Hiscox during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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