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Lecture1_notes - 1/13/11 Welcome to Air Pollution...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/13/11 Welcome to Air Pollution Climatology January 11, 2011 GEOG 371 The Essentials O Meeting time: Tuesday and Thursday 9:30-10:45 AM O Be on time to class! O Come prepared to class – notebook, readings completed, bring your homework O Attendance is important. Missed work (including quizzes) cannot be made up! 1 1/13/11 The Essentials O Finding me: O  Callcott Room 120 O Office Hours: O Monday 2-3:30 O Wednesday 11-12 O Email: hiscox@sc.edu O Please include “GEOG 371” in the subject line The Essentials O Textbook available at the bookstore on campus. O Course materials will be on blackboard – check frequently O 10 Homeworks O 2 “projects” O Unannounced quizzes 2 1/13/11 The Essentials O Academic misconduct will not be tolerated: O Plagiarism O Cheating O Collusion O Data distortion O University policy at www.sc.edu/policies/staf625.pdf Expectations O Homework O Quizzes O Exam 1 O Exam 2 15 % 10 % 20% 20% O Final Project 15% O Final Exam 20% 3 1/13/11 Getting to know you O  Introductions: O What do you want to learn from the course? O Pre quiz and background questions Air Pollution Fundamentals 4 1/13/11 Definition of Air Pollution Buildup in the air of anthropogenically-emitted gases and/or aerosol particles in concentrations sufficiently high to cause damage to humans, plants, animals, other life forms, ecosystems, structures, or works of art. Definition of Air Pollution An atmospheric condition in which substances are present at concentrations higher than their normal ambient (clean atmospheric) level to produce significant effects on humans, animals, vegetation or materials Seinfeld, J.H. (1986) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution. Wiley-Interscience, New York 5 1/13/11 Definitions •  Gas. Individual atoms or molecules suspended in the air in the gas phase. •  Particle. Aggregate of atoms and/or molecules in the liquid and/or solid phase. •  Aerosol. Ensemble of solid, liquid, or mixed-phase particles suspended in air. •  Aerosol particle. A single liquid, solid, or mixed-phase particle among an ensemble of suspended particles. 6 1/13/11 Definitions •  Hydrometeor. Ensemble of solid, liquid, or mixed-phase particles containing primarily water. •  Hydrometeor particle. A single particle among an ensemble of particles containing primarily water. Definitions •  Atom. Nucleus containing 1-92 positively-charged protons and 0-146 zero-charged neutrons surrounded by 1-92+ negatively charged electrons in orbit around it. •  Ion. Atom with a different number of protons from electrons. •  Atomic mass. Average mass of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. •  Atomic number. Number of protons in an atomic nucleus. 7 1/13/11 Definitions •  Element. Single atom or substance composed of several atoms, each with the same atomic number. •  Isotope. Atoms of an element with a different number of neutrons in the nucleus (but same number of protons). From : h1p://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/invesBgaBons/es0501/es0501page06.cfm 8 1/13/11 Units for Concentrations •  The amount of (mass, moles, molecules, etc.) of a substance in a given volume divided by that volume •  ConcentraBon depends on pressure and temperature through the ideal gas law Volumetric Gravimetric Parts per million (micro) 10 ­6 ppm μl/l μmol/mol mg/m3 Parts per billion (nano) 10 ­9 ppb nl/l nmol/mol μg/m3 Parts per trillion (pico) 10 ­12 ppt pl/l pmol/mol ng/m3 Discovery of Solids and Liquids •  Iron [Fe]. Dense metal, 4th most-abundant element in the Earth s crust, ferrum. Appears reddish because it absorbs blue, green light. 1500 BC Hittites in modern Turkey created pure iron by heating iron ore Fe2O3(s) to high temperature with charcoal for several hours, cooling, pounding, reheating to release oxygen and brittle impurities to produce shiny Fe. Chaldeans (612-539 B.C.) identified iron with the planet Mars Technology to produce iron spread to Scandinavia after 50 BC. Iron present in soil dust and industrial particles. h1p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Iron_electrolyBc_and_1cm3_cube.jpg 9 1/13/11 Discovery of Solids and Liquids •  Lead [Pb]. Dense, bluish-white metal, plumbum. Plumber describes a person who works with lead pipes. 3500 BC discovered by heating lead ore in a campfire. Melting point is 327 oC and lead is dense, so heating lead ore caused pure metal to flow to the bottom of fire. Chaldeans identified lead with the planet Saturn. Used to make containers and lead pipes by the Romans since it is malleable, ductile, noncorrosive. Emitted today during battery manufacturing, lead-ore smelting, leaded fuel. h1p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lead_electrolyBc_and_1cm3_cube.jpg Discovery of Solids and Liquids •  Sulfur [S]. Nonmetallic, pale-yellow crystal found in volcanic, hot springs. Brimstone is a term for sulfur referring to its combustibility. The brimstone that rained on Sodom and Gomorrah may have originated from a volcano, since brimstone can be found at the southern edge of the Dead Sea. h1p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sulfur ­sample.jpg •  Carbon [C]. In diamonds, graphite in pure form; in charcoal, coal, and coke in amorphous form. Carbon appears in gas and particle form in the atmosphere. h1p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Diamond ­and ­graphite ­with ­scale.jpg 10 1/13/11 Discovery of Solids and Liquids •  Sodium carbonate [Na2CO3(s)]. Also called nitrum, washing soda, soda ash, salt cake. A crystal found in the six Lakes of Natron to the west of Nile Delta. Used to make soaps, detergents. •  Calcium carbonate [CaCO3(s)]. Pure form: calcite, aragonite; mixed form: limestone, marble, chalk, shells, bones. •  Sodium chloride [NaCl(s)]. Halite, from evaporation of sea water. Major component of sea spray particles. Discovery of Solids and Liquids •  Potassium nitrate [KNO3(s)]. Nitre, saltpeter = "salt of rock" found as colorless, salt-like crust on rocks. Used in Greek fires originally and in gunpowder since 12th century. •  Sulfurous acid [H2SO3(aq)]. "Oil of sulfur", from sulfur dioxide in water, used as a fumigant. Homer called it pest-averting sulfur 2800 years ago. •  Gypsum [CaSO4-2H2O(s)]. Rock formed from volcanic sulfur and calcite. Mined in the Jordan Valley for vases, jars, saucers, bowls. Plaster" referred to by Aristotle s student, Theophrastus in 315 B.C. Main component of Plaster of Paris. 11 1/13/11 Gypsum, White Sands, NM h1p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:White_Sands_New_Mexico_USA.jpg Andreas Libavius (1540-1616) Extracted nitric acid [HNO3(aq)] from KNO3(s) and water. Obtained sulfuric acid [H2SO4(aq)] oil of vitriol from "green vitriol" [FeSO4-7H2O(s)]. and from burning sulfur and saltpeter 7S(s)+6KNO3(s)+4H2O(aq) --> 3K2S(s)+6NO(g)+4H2SO4(aq) Vincent de Beauvais (1190-1264) first distilled sulfuric acid from the crystal alum [KAl(SO4)2-12H2O(s)] Edgar Fahs Smith CollecBon University of Pennsylvania Library 12 1/13/11 Johann Glauber (1604-1688) Sodium sulfate [(Na2SO4(s)] (Glauber salt) Ammonium nitrate [NH4NO3(s)] (Nitrammite) Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4(s)] (Secret sal ammoniac) Edgar Fahs Smith CollecBon University of Pennsylvania Library Discovery of Solids and Liquids •  Hydrochloric acid [HCl(aq)]. ( spirit of salt ) Angelus Sala (1575-1640) formed it by 2NaCl(s) + H2SO4(aq) --> 2HCl(aq) + Na2SO4(s) •  Calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2(s)]. Christopher Baldwin (1600-1682) formed it (1675) by CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) --> Ca(NO3)2(s) + H2CO3(aq) and called it phosphorus because it was phosphorescent. In 1669, Hennig Brand of Sweden distilled sand and evaporated urine to form an element that also glowed. Johann Kunckel named it "phosphorus" and called calcium nitrate "Baldwin's phosphorus. Discovery of Gases – Read in your text 13 1/13/11 Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) Born in 1733, Leeds, England. Sickly boy. Short of money when growing up. 1766. Met Benjamin Franklin who had invented the lightning rod. 1767. Priestley found that graphite could conduct electricity and wrote History of Electricity 1767. Became a pastor in a dissenting church. Home was next to a brewery, which produced a heavy gas. He investigated the gas and found it extinguished lighted wood chips. 1767. Found a method to produce the gas at home. When he dissolved it in water, it had a tangy taste and caused the water to bubble --> invented carbonated soda water. The gas was CO2(g). Did not earn any royalties. April 15, 1770. Discovered Indian gum could be used to rub out lead pencil marks --> invented the eraser, called rubber . 1772. Placed a small green plant in a container, in which he also lit a candle. Several days after the candle had burned out, he found the candle could light again because the plant had produced oxygen (which he did not yet know about) --> discovered photosynthesis. 1772. Admitted to Royal Society August 1, 1774. Discovered oxygen. I have discovered an air five or six times as good as common air. Also discovered HCl(g), NO(g), N2O(g), CO(g), NO2(g) Edgar Fahs Smith CollecBon University of Pennsylvania Library Reconstruction of Priestley's oxygen apparatus Edgar Fahs Smith Collection, University of Pennsylvania Library 14 1/13/11 Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94) Born in Paris. Wealthy when growing up. Worked one day a week as scientist, the rest as a gentleman. 1768. Joined Ferme Générale, a tax company hired by government to set and collect taxes. Became member of French Academy of Sciences. 1772. Found that phosphorus weighed more after it was burned: 4P(s) + 5O2(g) + fire --> P4O10(s) Also found that lead and sulfur weighed more when they burned. 1774. Found that 1/6 to 1/5 of air was consumed during combustion. The Story of Oxygen Priestley called oxygen dephlogisticated air since he thought it was pure air (contained no phlogiston). Weeks after discovery, Priestley went to France and met Lavoisier for dinner and told Lavoisier about his discovery. Lavoisier realized this was the gas being consumed during combustion. He replicated Priestley s experiment, isolated the properties of the gas, then formalized oxygen theory of combustion: Metal + oxygen + fire --> oxide of the metal Metal oxide + heat --> metal + oxygen which dispelled the theory of phlogiston. Stahl s phlogiston is imaginary. Priestley staunchly defended phlogiston theory. Lavoisier renamed it oxygen, the acid-maker. 15 1/13/11 Fates of Lavoisier and Priestley 1782. Priestley wrote History of Corruptions of Christianity which was burned in 1785. Joined Lunar Society, which gave rise to the term lunatics July 14, 1791. His Birmingham home and laboratory were burned by a mob due to his open support of the American and French Revolutions and his unpopular religious views. He moved to London but persecution sent him to Pennsylvania in 1794, where he died in 1804. May 1794. Lavoisier arrested. After a 1-day trial, he and 27 others guillotined and thrown into a common grave. Edgar Fahs Smith Collection, University of Pennsylvania Library "The Arrest of Lavoisier" Devised first chemical system of nomenclature. Named oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen. Formalized oxygen theory of combustion. Proved law of conservation of mass. Specified that matter exists in three states. Gases can cool to liquids or solids. Diamonds are pure carbon. Edgar Fahs Smith CollecBon University of Pennsylvania Library 16 1/13/11 Side note Noble Gases •  Helium (He). 1868 Janssen observed yellow line in spectrum of sun s chromosphere. Lockyer confirmed finding and named element Helium, after Helios, the Greek god of the sun. •  Argon (Ar). 1894 Rayleigh found that nitrogen gas from the air was 0.5% heavier than that prepared chemically. He and Ramsay found the difference was due to Argon, from argos, meaning lazy. Argon was used in War of the Worlds. From radioactive decay of potassium. •  Neon (Ne), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe). 1898. Ramsay and Travers. From neos ( new ), kryptos ( concealed ), xenos ( guest ). Sources: radioactive decay (krypton, xenon) and outgassing (neon). 17 1/13/11 Structures of Compounds Molecular oxygen O O Molecular nitrogen N N O Ozone O O S Sulfur dioxide O Carbon monoxide O C Carbon dioxide O O C O H Hydroxyl radical O H Nitric oxide N O Methane H H O Sulfate ion Nitrogen dioxide O N O CH S O O O Structures of Organic Compounds Alkane Alkene Cycloalkene Hemiterpene Ethane C2H6(g) Ethene C2H4(g) Cyclopentene C5H8(g) Isoprene C5H8(g) H H H C C H H H H H C C H H H2C H2C H C CH CH3 H C C H2C CH2 CH2 Aromatic Alcohol Aldehyde Ketone Toluene C6H5CH3(g) Methanol CH3OH(g) Formaldehyde HCHO(g) Acetone CH3COCH3(g) CH3 H H C H O H O H C H H H O C C H H CH H 18 1/13/11 Chemical Reactions Unimolecular photolysis reacBon NO2 (g) + h! (1.1) NO(g) + O(g) Nitrogen dioxide Nitric oxide " < 420 nm Atomic oxygen Bimolecular thermal decomposiBon reacBon N2O5 (g) + M Dinitrogen pentoxide (1.2) NO2 (g) + NO3 (g) + M Nitrogen Nitrate dioxide radical  ­ ­ also wri1en as (1.3) M N2O5(g) Dinitrogen pentoxide NO2 (g) + NO3(g) Nitrogen dioxide Nitrate radical IsomerizaBon reacBon H C O (1.4) O* H M H Excited Criegee biradical H C O* O Excited formic acid Chemical Reactions Bimolecular collision reacBon CH4(g) + OH(g) Methane Hydroxyl radical (1.5) CH3(g) + H2O(g) Methyl Water radical vapor Reversible termolecular combinaBon reacBon NO2 (g) + NO3 (g) + M Nitrogen Nitrate dioxide radical (1.6) N2O5 (g) + M Dinitrogen pentoxide Derived from a pair of bimolecular reactions A+B<=>AB* AB*+M<=>AB+M 19 1/13/11 Chemical e-folding lifetime Time required for a chemical to decay to 1/e (about 0.37) its original value Long lifeBmes: N2(g), O2(g), CO2(g) Short lifeBmes: OH(g), NO(g), NO2(g), O3(g) •  EvoluBon of the Earth’s Atmosphere •  Read Chapter 1 and 2 of your Text •  Homework #1 – Due January 18th – Available on Blackboard 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.8 20 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2011 for the course GEOG 371 taught by Professor Hiscox during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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