Logical Fallacies-Fall 2010

Logical Fallacies-Fall 2010 - One of Aristotles three modes...

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Unformatted text preview: One of Aristotles three modes of persuasion The argument itself Two types of argumentation: inductive vs. deductive Syllogism : three-part argument consisting of two premises, the truth of which necessarily guarantee the truth of the conclusion Major Premise: All men are mortal. Minor Premise: Socrates is a man. Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. The type of syllogism particular to rhetoric The body of rhetorical persuasion ( Rhet. I.i.2) The orators demonstration and the most effective mode of persuasion ( Rhet. I.i.5) Two interpretations of Aristotles description of the enthymeme ( Rhet. I.ii.6-8) Most common interpretation A syllogism in which one of the premises is left unstated so as to be inferred by the listener The enthymeme must consist of few propositions, fewer often than those which make up the normal syllogism. For if any of these propositions is a familiar fact, there is no need even to mention it; the hearer adds it himself.- Rhet. I. ii. 8. Aristotles Ex.: Dorieus has been rewarded with a crown, for he was a victor in the Olympic games. Another Ex.: James Cameron is a great director, for he won Academy Awards for his films Titanic and Avatar . A syllogism is which the truth of the premises is not absolute, guaranteed or necessary  There are few facts of the necessary type that can form the basis of rhetorical syllogisms. Most of the things about which we make decisionsabout our actions that we deliberate and inquirehave a contingent character; hardly any of them are determined by necessityIt is evident, therefore, that the propositions forming the basis of enthymemes, though some of them may be necessary, will most of them be only usually true. - Rhet. I. ii. 8.  The enthymeme is different from other kinds of dialectical arguments, insofar as it is used in the rhetorical context of public speech (and rhetorical arguments are called enthymemes); thus, no further formal or qualitative differences are needed. Christoff Rapp Ex. James Cameron won Oscars for his films Avatar and Titanic . Oscars are only given to great directors. Thus, James Cameron is a great director. an error in the reasoning process an argument in which the premises do not provide the necessary degree of support for the conclusion  Rhetorical Proof : provides support for a conclusion but not assurance that it is true Fallacies of Relevance Component Fallacies Fallacies of Ambiguity Fallacies of Omission  L. Kip Wheeler, Logical Fallacies Handlist...
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Logical Fallacies-Fall 2010 - One of Aristotles three modes...

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