Autism Spectrum Disorder .pdf - Neurodevelopmental Disorders Autism Spectrum \u2022 Different degrees of severity of the same set of symptoms \u2022 DSM5 to

Autism Spectrum Disorder .pdf - Neurodevelopmental...

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Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Autism Spectrum Different degrees of severity of the same set of symptoms DSM5- to get rid of Asperger syndrome and PDNOS and rett syndrome--> and call all of those conditions autism spectrum disorder (ASD) o Occurs on a spectrum of disability or intensity History of Autism Category First described by Leo Kanner in 1943--> working with 10 boys recognized to have similar symptoms o Self- satisfied, no apparent affection when petted , doesn't observe the fact that anyone comes or goes, never seems glad to see father/ mother/ playmate- living within oneself In 1944, related case described by Hans Asperger o Asperger's- looking at boys who had social issues, but was bright, good in school In 1943- 1989--> 65 studies a year- 3000 autism articles published In 1990-2004--> 250 studies a year- 3000 autism articles In 2007--> 1000 articles on autism In 2008--> 1300 articles on autism Hughes (2009)- "nearly every conceivable problem that a child can have may be found in these unfortunate children and nearly every conceivable etiology has been mentioned to account for this serious disorder" DSM5 Diagnostic Criteria Deficient social interaction and communication o Deficits in social- emotional reciprocity: Individuals with autism don't respond to the communication of others in way that is sensitive to what other person has said Lack of reciprocal conversation Following a different train of thought- unresponsive Varies in severity along spectrum Reduced sharing of interests, emotions, affect Failure to initiate or respond to social interaction Issue can show up early in life- doesn't cuddle like a normal infant would do o Deficits in nonverbal communication We usually can communicate with the tone of our voice, gesture, head movement--> social information Autism doesn't really understand or use nonverbal communication Poorly integrated verbal, nonverbal communication Abnormal eye contact or body language Deficient use and understanding of gestures Lack of facial expression and nonverbal communication Autism has difficult time understanding when people were being sarcastic (saying one thing verbally, but meaning something else) Autism- usually speaking is unemotional, flat, monotone o Deficits in developing, maintaining relationships Difficulty adjusting behavior to social context Difficulty sharing imaginative play, making friends Total absence of interest in peers Don't have interest in other people o Autism Very self- orientated, inward looking, social world doesn't interest them Resisted, repetitive patterns of behavior: o Stereotyped, repetitive movements, speech, etc. Lining up toys Echolalia- repetition of what someone has just said Idiosyncratic phrases- phrases that the person likes to repeat over and over again o Insistence on sameness of routines or rituals o Fixated interests of unusual intensity or focus o Hypo-, hyperreactivity to sensory input ASD has interesting pattern of sensory activities to certain kinds of stimuli Apparent indifference to pain, temperature Adverse response to specific sounds, textures, etc.
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