Chapter 23 notes

Chapter 23 notes - Chapter 23 The Evolutions of Populations...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 6/13/11 Chapter 23 The Evolutions of Populations
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6/13/11 The Smallest Unit of Evolution One common misconception about evolution is that individual organisms evolve during their lifetime. Evolutionary processes (e.g., natural selection) act on individuals, but populations evolve.
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6/13/11 Populations A group of individuals of the same species living in a certain defined area
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6/13/11 Concept 23.1 Mutation and sexual recombination produce the genetic variation that makes evolution possible
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6/13/11 Mutation Mutations: changes in nucleotide sequence of DNA Source of new alleles and genes Point mutation: change in one nucleotide base in a gene (also called a nucleotide substitution) Chromosomal mutations: delete, disrupt, or rearrange many loci on a chromosome
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6/13/11 Sexual Recombination In sexually reproducing organisms, sexual recombination produces most of the variability in each generation Crossing over during prophase I Independent assortment during metaphase I
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6/13/11 Variation within a Population Discrete characters: classified on an either-or basis (determined by a single gene). E.g., flower color in pea plants Quantitative characters: vary along a continuum within a population (show a much wider range of phenotype because it is determined by many genes rather than a single gene)—
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6/13/11 Concept 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving If there are no differences, we can conclude that the real population is not evolving. If there are differences in what the genetic makeup of a population would be if it were not evolving at a particular locus (H-W equation), we can conclude
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6/13/11 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
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