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Chapter 42 learning objectives

Chapter 42 learning objectives - Chapter Learning...

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Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter 42 Concept 42.1: Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body Explain how a gastrovascular cavity functions in part as a circulatory system o There is only one opening between the water outside and the fluid inside the cavity Both the inner and outer tissue layers are bathed by fluid Only inner layer cells have direct access to nutrients Nutrients must diffuse only a short distance to reach the cells of the outer layer Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems. List the three basic components common to both systems o Three common basic components: A circulatory fluid (blood) A set of tubes (blood vessels) A muscular pump (the heart) o Open circulatory system Blood bathes the organs directly Ex. Arthropods and most mollusks o Closed circulatory system Blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid Ex. Some invertebrates and all vertebrates List the structural components of a vertebrate circulatory system and relate their structure to their function o Often called the cardiovascular system o Blood circulates to and from the heart through an extensive network of vessels o Three main types are arteries, veins, and capillaries Arteries Carry blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body Within organs, arteries branch into arterioles o Small vessels that convey blood to the capillaries Capillaries
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Microscopic vessels with very thin, porous walls Capillary beds o Networks of capillaries that infiltrate each tissue Gas exchange occurs by diffusion between the blood and the interstitial fluid Veins The vessels that bring blood back to the heart Venules o Vessels that link together the capillary beds and veins Using diagrams, compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, non-bird reptiles, and mammals and birds o **Figure 42.5** Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circuits and explain the functions of each o Pulmonary circuit The branch of the circulatory system that supplies the lungs o Systemic circuit The branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body organs except those involved in gas exchange Concept 42.2: Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals Define a cardiac cycle and distinguish between systole and diastole o Cardiac cycle Rhythmic contraction of relaxation of the heart o Systole Contraction or pumping phase o Diastole Relaxation, or filling, phase List the four heart valves, describe their location, and explain their functions o Two atrioventricular (AV) valves Lie between each atrium and ventricle o Two semilunar valves Located at the two exits of the heart Where the aorta leaves the left ventricle Where the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle
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Define sinoatrial (SA) node and atrioventricular (AV) node and describe their location in the heart o
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