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Chapter 43 learning objectives

Chapter 43 learning objectives - Chapter 43 Learning...

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Chapter 43 Learning Objectives Distinguish between: o Innate immunity and acquired immunity Innate immunity Common to all animals Active immediately upon exposure to pathogens The same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously Acquired immunity Vertebrate specific defense Mediated by B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells) Exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition Also known as adaptive immunity o Humoral and cell-mediated immunity Humoral immunity Branch of acquired immunity Involves the activation of B cells Leads to the production of antibodies o Defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids Cell mediated immunity Branch of acquired immunity Involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells o Defend against infected cells Concept 43.1: In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on shared traits of pathogens Explain how the physical barrier of skin is reinforced by chemical defenses o Mucous membranes lining the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts Certain cells produce mucus Viscous fluid that enhances defenses by trapping microbes and other particles o In the trachea, ciliated epithelial cells sweep mucus and any entrapped microbes upward, helping prevent infection of the lungs o Saliva, tears, and mucous secretions that bathe various exposed epithelia provide a washing action that also inhibits colonization by microbes Define phagocytosis. Name four types of phagocytic leukocytes o Phagocytosis A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell o 4 types of phagocytic White Blood Cells
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Neutrophills Macrophages Eosinophils Dendritic cells Explain how phagocytic leukocytes recognize microbes o Recognize them by use of Toll-like receptors (TLR) o TLR recognizes fragments of molecules characteristic of a set of pathogens Describe the inflammation response, including how it is triggered o An innate immune defense triggered by physical injury or infection of tissue involving the release of substances that promote swelling, enhance the infiltration of white blood cells, and aid in tissue repair and destruction of invading pathogens o Changes brought about by signaling molecules released upon injury or infection Histamine Important inflammatory signaling molecule Substance released by mast cells that causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable in inflammatory and allergic responses Describe the factors that influence phagocytosis during the inflammation response o Activated complement proteins further the release of histamine and help attract phagocytes o Endothelial cells secrete signaling molecules that attract neutrophils and macrophages Explain how the action of natural killer cells differs from the action of phagocytes o Natural killer cells Attack body cells that are virally infected or cancerous Releases chemicals that initiate apoptosis (ex. Cell death)
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Chapter 43 learning objectives - Chapter 43 Learning...

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