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Chapter 40 learning objectives

Chapter 40 learning objectives - Chapter Learning...

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Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter 40 Concept 40.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization Explain how physical laws constrain animal form o Body shape is determined by the environment Ex. Fish have a streamlined body contour Water is 1000x denser than air Any little thing will cause resistance and slow the fish down o Influence animal body plans with regard to maximum size As body dimensions increase, thicker skeletons are required to maintain adequate strength This limitation affects internal skeletons, such as those of vertebrates, as well as external skeletons, such as those insects and other arthropods o As bodies increase in size, the muscles required for locomotion must represent an ever-larger fraction of the total body mass At some point, mobility becomes limited Define cell, tissue, organ, organ system o Cell The basic structural building block of living organisms, consisting of protoplasm delimited by a cell membrane o Tissue An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure or both o Organ A specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues o Organ system A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
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From the list below explain how their structure relates to their functions and note examples of each o Epithelial tissue Covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body The close packing of epithelial cells, often involving tight junctions, enables epithelial tissue to function as a barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens, and fluid loss. o Connective tissue Bind and support other tissues in the body Consists of a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix The matrix generally consists of a web of fibers embedded in a uniform foundation that may be liquid, jellylike, or solid 6 major types Loose connective tissue Adipose tissue Fibrous connective tissue Cartilage Bone Blood o Muscle tissue Responsible for nearly all types of body movement Consist of filaments containing the proteins actin and myosin, which together enable muscles to contract Most abundant tissue in many animals, and muscle activity accounts for much of the energy-consuming cellular work in an active animal 3 types Skeletal (striated) muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle o Nervous tissue Sense stimuli and transmit signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another Neuron Nerve cells, which have extensions called axons that are uniquely specialized to transmit nerve impulses
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