Biology 1202. Test 3

Biology 1202. Test 3 - Test 3 H1N1 Other biological...

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Test 3 H1N1 Other biological entities o Not organism o Viruses o Viroids Simpler and smaller Fragments of single stranded RNA with no protein coat. Hijack cells; infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees, potatoes, avocados. The damage was caused by mad cow of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This is a cell that is infected with the disease. Prions o Non living particle that damages brain tissues. o The damage was caused by mad cow or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This is a cell that is infected with the disease. What exactly is a prion? o They are unusual infectious particles o Prions are protein particle with NO genetic mater ( DNA or RNA) o IT is a disease that individuals can inherit from their parents and can lead to many problems in your nervous system. o Mad cow disease. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Kuru. 15 years for the disease to kill. o Prions consist of a protein that is folded incorrectly and makes other proteins fold wrong. There is an aggregation of these proteins (Beta pleated sheets) Where do they come from? o No completely understood.
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o It takes a lot to denature these proteins o They develop as a by-product of living organisms, using humans as a host. Bioremediation o To make living things better o Using living organisms to clean up toxic waste, oil spills, and other man-made areas like Chernobyl o These organisms are naturally resistant to high doses of radiation so they can be genetically modified to target the high waste areas so they can be cleaned up. o Deinococcus radiodurans Survive 3000x more radiation than humans Tolerate extreme dehydration, heat and cold Used to “chew up” toxic waste. Exxon-Valdez oil spill “super bacterium” o Naturally occurring bacteria can also clean up messes. Split oil can be broken down by enzymes present in naturally occurring bacteria Prokaryotes o BACTERIA and ARCHAEA Domains o 8000 species described, may be 100-1000x that number o 1 st organisms to appear on Earth, 3.5 billion years ago o Characteristics Cells wall- semi-rigid, permeable, made of peptidoglycans (carbohydrate with amino acids attached). Gives bacteria shapes. Depending on the genome they can take three different shapes. Bacilli (Rod-shaped) o In a gram positive cell- peptidoglycan traps crystal violet
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o Gram positive a plasma membrane, composed of a phospholipid bi- layer with some proteins. Outside of this membrane there is a thick cell wall made of peptidoglycans. o Gram-negative crystal violet is easily rinsed away, revealing red dye. o Gram-negative cells have 2 membranes. An inner and an outer membrane. In between these two is a peptidoglycans layers of cell wall that is much thinner than in the positive cell. Real difference is the thickness of the peptidoglycan layer.
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Biology 1202. Test 3 - Test 3 H1N1 Other biological...

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