Genetics_

Genetics_ - Key processes involving genetic information:...

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Unformatted text preview: Key processes involving genetic information: Replication making a copy of the DNA Transcription synthesis of RNA from a DNA template Translation synthesis of proteins from messenger RNA D eoxyribo N ucleic A cid double stranded helix Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Nucleoid Nucleus Single circular chromosome Multiple linear chromosomes supercoiled by DNA gyrases Most are supercoiled by DNA gyrases but some have histones to form nucleosomes wound around histones to form nucleosomes Extrachromosomal plasmids Plasmids are rare; mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA Transposable elements Fig. 7-4 Fig. 7-5 Bacteria Eukarya Fig. 7-8d Fig. 7-9 Archaea E. coli Supercoiled DNA 4.6 Million base pairs 0.34nm per base pair 1.56mm long into a 2m x 0.8m cell 7.1 animation (1, 5, 10, 11) of DNA replication Figure 7.19 DNA replication Bacteria Archaea Eukarya One circular chromosome Multiple linear chromosomes One origin of replication 1, 2, or 3 origins of replication Many origins of replication bidirectional semiconservative DNA gyrase unwinds supercoils ahead of replication fork DNA helicase unwinds double helix at the replication fork DNA polymerase adds deoxyribonucleotides in a 5 3 direction, complementary to the 3 5 strand Replication Comparison Transcription: RNA Synthesis DNA RNA Protein Eukaryotes have noncoding DNA sequence called introns in between the coding DNA called exons . Fig. 8.5 No introns in prokaryote genes. Fig. 7.2 Types of RNA messenger RNA (mRNA) translated into protein transfer RNA (tRNA) carry amino acids to be put into proteins ribosomal RNA (rRNA) brings together mRNA and tRNAs for protein synthesis Transcription mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are transcribed from DNA promoter...
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Genetics_ - Key processes involving genetic information:...

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