Test 2 Genetics

Test 2 Genetics - February 7 2011 Test 2 Key Processes...

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February 7, 2011 Test 2 Key Processes involving Genetic Information: Replication o Making a copy of the DNA Transcription o Synthesis of RNA from a DNA template o FIRST Translation o Synthesis of proteins from messenger RNA DNA COMPARISON Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Nucleoid Nucleus Single circular chromosome Multiple linear chromosomes supercoiled by DNA gyrases Most are supercoiled by DNA gyrases but some have histones to form nucleosomes wound around histones to form nucleosomes Extrachromosomal plasmids Plasmids are rare; mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA Transposable elements
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The largest plasmids known are found in the Archaea extreme halophile species Halobacterium and Halococcus . They are so large they might turn out to be small chromosomes. 3’ 5’ run anti-parallel to each other. 2 polynucleotide strands run antiparallel strands have complementary sequences hydrogen bonding Adenine = Thymine (A=T; 2 Hyrdogen bond) Guanine = Cytosine (G=C; 3 hyrdogen bonds) Bacteria Eukarya Most Archaea supercoil their DNA with DNA gyrase, but some species use histones to form nucleosomes.
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E. Coli 4.6 Million base pairs , 0.34nm per base pair , 1.56mm long into a 2µm x 0.8µm cell DAPI stained E. coli Replication REPLICATION COMPARISON Bacteria Archaea Eukarya One circular chromosome Multiple linear chromosomes One origin of replication 1, 2, or 3 origins of replication Many origins of replication
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Test 2 Genetics - February 7 2011 Test 2 Key Processes...

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