Final Exam Notes

Final Exam Notes - Chapter 10 Older People and their...

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Chapter 10 Older People and their families The Modernization of Old Age Industrialization changed the way families are organized Grandparenthood as distinct stage is a WWII phenomenon Mortality Decline Mortality: the number of deaths in a population Active life expectancy : number of years a person can expect to live with out disability Higher for whites than non-whites The Social Consequences More older people in population Six in ten are women Older population: 65 years of age and older Young old: 65-74 years Old-old: 75-84 years Oldest old: 85 years and over Centenarian: a person 100 years or older Gerontologists study the elderly Fertility Decline Fertility: The number of births in a population Finished raising children before grandchildren arrive Rising Standard of Living Increased 1960—35% below poverty Today— less than 9.8% Social Security has increased faster than the cost of living has Variations by Age, Race, and Gender Older-old more likely to be poor Non-whites poorer than whites Women more likely to be poor than men ‘Tweeners: Group of elderly that have income between poor and middle class Variations by Age, Race, and Gender (cont.)
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Medicare: Government program of health insurance for all elderly people Medicaid: Health insurance for people with incomes below poverty Will Medicare and Social Security benefits last? Social Consequences Because of better economic status, older persons are less likely to be dependent on their children and vice versa Historically, intergenerational cooperation was more common than today Living arrangements—four categories Alone With a spouse With another relative With non-relatives only Separate Living Arrangements Living alone (more likely to be a woman) More likely to be widowed due to spouse’s death Fewer men available Living with spouse (more likely to be a man) More likely to be married, because of few men and many women Live near their children but not with them Dying and Death Changes in life expectancy have altered ways families experience dying and death Grandparents more likely to die than mothers or children Elderly men who lose their wives have difficult time maintaining household tasks Adult children’s experience of parental loss is dependent on parent-child relationship Giving and Getting Majority of help that elderly and adult children receive is from each other Until the last years, most aging parents are economically independent and healthy Most children will receive substantial help from their parents Mutual Assistance Altruism- caring about others and wanting to make their lives easier and better Exchange- works both ways—assistance reciprocal
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Generalized exchange: the provision of assistance to one member of the family with the expectation that someone in the family will reciprocate at
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Final Exam Notes - Chapter 10 Older People and their...

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