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Psych_115_-_hearing

Psych_115_-_hearing - PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE...

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PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE Hearing
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Sensation Now, we are going to discuss a system that is specialized for translating acoustic information (which are essentially pressure waves in surrounding air or water) into neural information.
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What is Sound? “Sounds” occur when things in the world push on air molecules, leading to their compression (and subsequent rarefaction) When something pushes on air molecules, that movement is propagated through space as a pressure wave, eventually reaching your ear
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Sound involves Vibrations Frequency (cycles of compression and rarefaction per second). R If the tuning fork is vibrating very fast, the perceived pitch is higher. Amplitude (among of force per unit area). The “strength” of the sound wave in units of force. R Higher amplitude sounds are “louder”.
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Features of Sound Most people can detect a huge frequency range of about 20 – 20000 Hz. Hearing is most sensitive at about 1000-2000 Hz.
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The Outer Ear: Humans The principle job of the external ear is to “funnel” sound waves into the ear canal. The external ear is called the pinna, and it directs sound waves into the ear canal, towards the tympanic membrane.
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The Outer Ear: Non-Humans Pinnas come in all shapes, sizes and functionalities. Other species can direct their ears in order to gather sound waves or to shield their ear canals when sounds are loud. Billy Monty
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The Middle Ear Sound waves propagating down the ear canal collide with the tympanic membrane (ear drum), vibrating it
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The Middle Ear Connected to the tympanic membrane are a series of three tiny bones, the malleus, the incus and the stapes. Vibrations in the tympanic cause the bones (ossicles) to move.
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The Middle Ear The responses of the ossicles are controlled by two muscles. The tensor tympani muscle connects to the malleus, and the stapedius muscle connects to the stapes. When these muscles contract, the vibrations of the ossicles are inhibited.
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