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Psych_115_-_Structure_and_Development

Psych_115_-_Structure_and_Development - PSYCH 115...

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PSYCH 115: PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE Brain Structure and Development Apr 19 ‘11
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Levels of Organization Macroscopic (gross anatomy) From Micro to Macro
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Macro (gross) level
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Figure 2.8 The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Central vs. Peripheral Nervous Systems The peripheral nervous system - all parts of the nervous system found outside the skull and spinal column The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord
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External Features The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by three protective membranes, the meninges : Dura mater Pia mater Arachnoid membrane lies between the other two, is filled with cerebrospin al fluid (CSF)
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Central Nervous System Central nervous system: Consists of brain and spinal cord The brain is dominated by two cerebral hemisphere s. The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres.
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Anatomical Terms Lobe Sulcus (Fissure) Gyrus Hemisphere
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Cerebral Cortex The neocortex (aka cerebral cortex) is the substrate of most of our sensorimotor functions and cognitive operations Cortical regions are roughly divided into so-called sensory, motor and associative cortical regions Sensory: involved in processing sensory input. Motor: involved in generating motor responses. Associative: involved in cognitive operations that are intermediate between sensing stimuli and acting upon them.
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Evolutionary Trends
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But wait…
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Separate the two Hemispheres… MEDIAL view (vs. lateral) Fiber bundle called the CORPUS CALLOSUM joins the two hemispheres Also note: Ventricles Deep brain structures
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Ventricles The lateral ventricle in each hemisphere is lined with the choroid plexus , a membrane that produces CSF (a salty water solution) CSF flows into the third ventricle then into the fourth ventricle where it exits to circulate over the brain and spinal cord
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Gray vs White Matter Exterior View Deep Structures
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Deep Structures in Forebrain Basal ganglia: part of the motor system Thalamus: “relay” for sensory information into cortex Hypothalamus: hormones, rhythms, drives Limbic system: emotions, motivation
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The Brain Forebrain Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata Does not include the spinal cord, but of course, the medulla and spinal cord are continuous
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Midbrain, Pons and Medulla Motor and sensory nuclei for head (neurons that receive information from sense organs in head and innervate muscles of head) Sleep-wake systems Control of breathing and heart Lots of nerve fibers connecting the spinal cord to the brain and the brain to the spinal cord (going in both directions)
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Cerebellum (little brain)
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