slides_I_Spring_2011_online

slides_I_Spring_2011_online - Cognitive Development...

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Cognitive Development Psychology 133B Slides for 3/29/2011 - 4/19/2011
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Brain Development changes in brain size changes in brain structure changes in neurons
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Pattern of Brain Development Neuron birth Neuron migration Neuron differentiation Dendrites, axons grow Cell death Synaptogenesis Synaptic pruning 6-20 weeks prenatal peaks 23 weeks prenatal Flourishes up to 2-3 years peaks childhood - up to adolescence
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Connections in the Brain
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Brain Development synaptogenesis pruning
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Synaptogenesis Although most neurons are already formed before birth there are virtually no synaptic connections experience and interaction with the environment that forms the synaptic connections Most synaptogenesis occurs through the 2nd year of life
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Synaptogenesis After birth - development is refinement of neuronal connections, maturity of the neurons, and increasing complexity of dendrite
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Synaptogenesis Neurons and synapses must get hooked together properly to develop specific skills and abilities During infancy and early childhood the cerebral cortex overproduces synapses (2X as much as needed) The overproduction leads to a competition for survival of the fittest synapses
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Pruning During childhood, pruning causes a loss of up to 10% of volume of gray matter in the cortex Weight of human brain is maintained, however, due to increased myelination (Huttenlocher, 1999)
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Two Types of Synapse Development 1. Experience-expectant development Overproduce synapses, prune with experience “Experience leads to less” Tied to critical/sensitive periods Organizes brain to process information, behaviors expected for all humans •. Sensory processes •. Parental attachment •. Eye-hand coordination •. Language capacity
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Two Types of Synapse Development 1. Experience-expectant development Overproduce synapses, prune with experience “Experience leads to less” Tied to critical/sensitive periods Organizes brain to process information, behaviors expected for all humans •. Sensory processes •. Parental attachment •. Eye-hand coordination •. Language capacity
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Two Types of Synapse Development 2. Experience-dependent development synapses form based on experience “Experience leads to more” not necessary for typical development/survival behaviors that differ between humans based on individual experience •. playing the violin •. reading •. playing chess
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(Neural) Cell migration - What is it? How does it happen? Premature babies - why does experience matter? How are they attempting to help preemie babies by changing their experience? What does “Use it or lose it” mean?
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course PSYCH 133B taught by Professor Gross during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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slides_I_Spring_2011_online - Cognitive Development...

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