slides_II_2011

slides_II_2011 - Psychology 133B Slides for 4/19/11 -...

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Psychology 133B Slides for 4/19/11 - 5/12/11
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Perceptual Development
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Click to edit Master subtitle style William James (1842-1910) The baby, assailed by eyes, ears, nose, skin, and entrails at once, feels it all as one great blooming, buzzing confusion
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Vision Visual processing requires 40% to 50% of our cerebral cortex function. Fetus is not exposed to much if any visual stimulus Retina forms Nerve pathways form At birth, basic neural pathways necessary for normal vision  are pretty much ready to go  but cells in retina not as densely packed at birth optic nerve also less developed
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Vision - neonate Can: track an object through space detect edges and contours show contrast sensitivity perceive color show size constancy show shape constancy How do we know?
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Vision Newborns start scanning the environment moments after birth. Preferential-looking technique:
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Preferential Looking Picture 3
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Preferential Looking
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Preferential Looking
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Visual Acuity Visual acuity is the sharpness of vision.
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Simulations of Visual Acuity
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Infants have poor contrast sensitivity; they can see patterns only when composed of highly contrasting elements. Contrast Sensitivity
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Visual acuity
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Visual acuity
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Why does vision improve Reason 1: changes in the size, shape, and arrangement of the cones (neural cells that aid in color and detail perception) are still developing.
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Visual Acuity a) Adults b) Infants
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Reason 2 - the lens Why does vision improve
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Reason 3 - the shape of eyeball Why does vision improve
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What is the role of input in visual perceptual development?
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Cataracts in Infancy
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Visual Scanning Infants are attracted to moving stimuli, but their eye movements are not smooth. By 2–3 months, infants can track moving objects smoothly if the objects are moving slowly. Infants’ visual scanning ability is limited to focusing on perimeters or corners.
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Visual scanning
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Pattern Perception Pattern perception requires visual acuity, visual scanning, and the ability to analyze and integrate the separate elements of a visual display. Infants as well as adults can perceive subjective contours. Infants can perceive coherence among moving elements: in one study, the ability to identify characteristic patterns of people walking.
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§ Pattern Perception Subjective contour (Bertenthal, Campos, & Haith, 1980)
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Object Perception Object segregation: Infants can perceive boundaries between objects.
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Object segregation
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Object Segregation and Knowledge As children get older, general knowledge aids in object segregation.
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Depth and distance cues help us know where we are with respect to objects and landmarks. Infants are perceptive to some of these
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slides_II_2011 - Psychology 133B Slides for 4/19/11 -...

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