slides_III_2011_spring

slides_III_2011_spring - Slides III 5/17/2011 5/31/2011...

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Slides III 5/17/2011 – 5/31/2011
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Categories and Concepts
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Categories - a grouping of different instances on the basis of some underlying similarity (perceptual or otherwise) Critical for helping people make sense of the world
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Steps in Categorization Perceive stimulus Encode relevant aspects Group/organize with other instances in memory Generalization
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Category hierarchies Categorization - What changes?
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Categorical Hierarchies Categorical hierarchies include three main levels: Superordinate, a general level Subordinate level, a very specific level Basic level an intermediate level Example: Superordinate: fruit Basic: apple Subordinate: Honeycrisp apple
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Superordinate low within category similarity
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Subordinate Level low between category dissimilarity
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Basic Level optimal blend of within category similarity and between category dissimilarity
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Prediction - basic level should be the first categories that children form Children’s first words tend to be at the basic level (Anglin, 1977) Children group objects more readily at the basic level (e.g. all the dogs vs. all the animals) Rosch, 1976
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But complicated by defining what is basic as well as the idea that there may be a child-basic-level “things that roll” instead of “balls” (Mervis, 1987) Infants often group objects more readily on the basis of global categories (e.g. animals vs vehicles) than on basic level (Mandler, 1998)
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Infants form concepts from early on Core-knowledge theories: Infants have a core knowledge guides concept acquisition Piaget’s theory: Infants physical interactions with objects help them learn about concepts Information-processing : Through basic processing skills (e.g., association), infants make connections about many aspects of a concept Sociocultural theories: Look at the way the social world influences an infant’s conceptual development
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How do we know infants or young children have formed a category? kitty Labeling
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operant conditioning , 3-5 month olds categorize on the basis of shape, size, number, etc. (Rovee- Collier) Categorization
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Sequential touching task Categorization
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Categorization Object examination task: 2 categories of object models Child is familiarized with 4 objects in category A, then presented with a 5th object in category A, then 1 object in category B “Active examination” time is measured, not looking time. Test Familiarization
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Categorization Inductive inference: Experimenter models an action appropriate to an object (e.g., keying a car, letting an animal drink) Child is presented with a choice of objects Infants tend to imitate on objects of the same domain
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Categorization - What changes? As children approach the third year of life, the ability
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course PSYCH 133B taught by Professor Gross during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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slides_III_2011_spring - Slides III 5/17/2011 5/31/2011...

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