CH302 Chapter 7 notes part 1

CH302 Chapter 7 notes part 1 - CH302 Chapter 7 notes part 1...

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CH302 Chapter 7 notes part 1 ACIDS and BASES What’s an Acid? Acids turn litmus RED Acidic solutions will conduct electricity Acids react with some metals and make H 2(g) IF A FOOD ACID (e.g. lemon juice) it will taste sour DO NOT EVER test non-food acids this way! What’s a Base? Bases turn litmus BLUE Basic solutions will conduct electricity Foods which are basic taste bitter DO NOT EVER test non-food bases this way! Bases have a slippery feeling (e.g. soap, baking soda) DO NOT test ANY other bases this way! What’s an Acid? Arrhenius definition (simplest) : something which breaks apart ( ionizes or dissociates ) to give a negative ion and a positive hydrogen ion. NOTE: We often write “H + “ but we MEAN “H 3 O + Hydrogen Chloride gas dissolves in water to make HYDROCHLORIC ACID: HCl (g) HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) See later: These IONS do not float around naked… HCl (g) HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) What’s a Base? Arrhenius definition (simplest) : something which breaks apart ( ionizes or dissociates ) to give a positive ion and a hydroxide ion. Sodium Hydroxide dissolves in water: NaOH (s) NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Again, these IONS do not float around naked….but we usually write them this way. Useful Acid Terms Monoprotic: having one acidic proton, e.g.:nitrous (HNO 2(aq) ), nitric (HNO 3(aq) ), hydrochloric (HCl (aq) ), acetic (CH 3 COOH (aq) ), perchloric (HClO 4(aq) ) Diprotic: having two acidic protons, e.g.:sulfuric (H 2 SO 4(aq) ) Triprotic: having three acidic protons, e.g.:phosphoric (H 3 PO 4(aq) ) Oxyacid: acidic protons are attached to O atoms:, e.g.: nitrous (HNO 2(aq) ), nitric (HNO 3(aq) ), perchloric (HClO 4(aq) ) sulfuric (H 2 SO 4(aq) ), phosphoric (H 3 PO 4(aq) ) Organic acid: one containing the carboxyl group (COOH), e.g.: acetic (CH 3 COOH (aq) ) Binary Acid: H plus another element, e.g. Hydrochloric (HCl(aq)) NAMING ACIDS AND BASES Covered in Chapter 4 in CH301: review on your own: Bases: easy: {Cation} Hydroxide (or, amines. . see examples later, will be done more in O-chem.) Acids: LEARN THIS!!
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CH302 Chapter 7 notes part 1 - CH302 Chapter 7 notes part 1...

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