9781423901402_PPT_Ch04 - Information Technology in Theory...

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Chapter 4 Computer Hardware Information Technology in Theory By Pelin Aksoy and Laura DeNardis
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2 Objectives Identify some important historical milestones in the development of computers Understand logic gates and how computers use them to process information Identify the fundamental components of a computer Understand how computer performance depends on factors such as processor speed, chip set, bus width, bus speed, number of CPUs, and instruction set Information Technology in Theory
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3 Objectives (continued) Examine future trends in computing and societal issues related to these advances Understand the physical principles of data storage and the difference between mechanical, magnetic, optical, and electronic storage Information Technology in Theory
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4 A Brief History of Computers Computing devices trace back at least to the Abacus Mechanical calculation tools in the 1600s included William Oughtred’s slide rule, BlaisePascal’s arithmetic machine, and Leibniz’s step reckoner Calculation tools of the 1800s included Charles Babbage’s Difference and Analytical engines Augusta Ada Byron, the Countess of Lovelace, worked with Babbage in programming the analytical engine Herman Hollerith developed the tabulating machine to tabulate the 1890 US census data using punch cards Information Technology in Theory
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5 A Brief History of Computers (continued) The punch card concept is attributed to Joseph Marie Jacquard The 1940s spurred big advancements in computing John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at the Iowa State College built the ABC Konrad Zuse built the Z3 Howard Aiken built the Mark I, which was programmed by Grace Murray Hopper British scientists built the Colossus John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert built the ENIAC Information Technology in Theory
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6 A Brief History of Computers (continued) The transistor and integrated circuit enable smaller computers compared to vacuum tubes Popular Electronics ran a feature story about a home “do-it-yourself” computer kit called the Altair Radio Shack began to sell the TRS-80 home computer, and Apple Computer Inc. introduced its own line of home computers These advances, and the introduction of IBM’s personal computer (PC) in 1981, contributed to the explosion of computers in all facets of modern life Information Technology in Theory
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7 A Brief History of Computers (continued) A variety of social and economic factors, along with advances in microprocessors and distributed networks, led to the introduction of mobile, wireless, and handheld computers Information Technology in Theory
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8 Digital Logic A computer has one or more main chips called the microprocessor, which performs most of the processing, and several other supporting chips Integrated circuits such as microprocessors are built by combining transistors together to create logic gates These basic building blocks can be combined to create successively larger building blocks, which may
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2011 for the course CIS 3003 taught by Professor Bauer during the Spring '11 term at University of Central Florida.

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9781423901402_PPT_Ch04 - Information Technology in Theory...

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