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9781423901402_PPT_Ch05 - Information Technology in Theory...

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Chapter 5 Software Information Technology in Theory By Pelin Aksoy and Laura DeNardis
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2 Objectives Learn what exactly constitutes software Gain familiarity with the various types of programming languages Distinguish between different types of operating systems Information Technology in Theory
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3 Objectives (continued) Understand the difference between system software and application software Learn about the software development process Understand the concept of open source software and related issues Information Technology in Theory
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4 What is Software? A series of data and instructions written by programmers (or sometimes automatically generated) using a programming language, to perform a certain task Information Technology in Theory
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5 Software versus Hardware Hardware: a tangible device that physically performs particular tasks Software does not physically perform these tasks itself Software provides a series of instructions to the hardware to perform a task Software enables the hardware to serve many functions, or in other terms, to be programmed Information Technology in Theory
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6 Programming Languages Low-level programming language Short, targeted operations For example, assembly language Used for highly specialized programming, such as manipulating the contents of the microprocessor and directly controlling the functions of the ALU Programmers who write in assembly language are familiar with the details of the microprocessor Each type has a different architecture and requires different instructions for decoding and execution Information Technology in Theory
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7 Assembly Language Programmers who write in assembly language are familiar with the details of the microprocessor Each type has a different architecture and requires different instructions for decoding and execution Information Technology in Theory
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8 Device Driver Assembly language programming is commonly used to create device drivers and to create instructions stored on the BIOS chip on the motherboard A device driver is software that provides an interface between peripheral components, such as printers and mice, and a computer’s other hardware components The computer’s BIOS chip supplies the vital steps that the computer must follow as it is switched on Information Technology in Theory
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9 Machine Language The instructions and data that correspond to the software and reside in RAM are in the form of ones and zeros, or machine language When programmers write in any assembly language or high-level language, their programs are eventually converted to machine language so they can be interpreted and executed by the microprocessor Utility programs are used to make these conversions For example, a program written in assembly language is converted to machine language by a program called an assembler Information Technology in Theory
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10 High-Level Programming Languages
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