9781423901402_PPT_Ch13 - Information Technology in Theory...

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Chapter 13 Communication Protocols Information Technology in Theory By Pelin Aksoy and Laura DeNardis
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2 Objectives Understand the purpose and importance of communication protocols Gain familiarity with the seven-layer OSI reference model Learn about TCP/IP, the protocols that enable communications over the Internet Information Technology in Theory
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3 Objectives (continued) Understand the role of standards organizations in the development of protocols Identify the economic and political implications of IT standards Information Technology in Theory
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4 The Need for Protocols Computers and communication devices can seamlessly share and exchange information only if they “speak the same language,” adhering to a common system of rules known as protocols To understand how and why computers use protocols, consider how people rely on protocols in everyday life Information Technology in Theory
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5 Protocols in Real Life Information Technology in Theory
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6 The Role of Protocols Formatting information in binary code Breaking up information into manageable units prior to transmission (these units include packets, frames, and cells, as discussed in the previous chapter) Detecting the presence of another node on the network Information Technology in Theory
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7 The Role of Protocols (continued) Specifying what kind of standard connector an Ethernet cable should have Initiating or terminating a connection Appending a source and destination address to the bits in a standardized format Applying error detection and correction methods (for example, adding a parity bit) Information Technology in Theory
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8 The Role of Protocols (continued) Information Technology in Theory
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9 Protocol Suites With so many protocols simultaneously acting on the same information, it can be challenging to understand their individual responsibilities A taxonomic approach of grouping protocols into families, called network protocol suites , is useful Protocols are hierarchical, in that any given protocol depends on or builds upon protocols that have already been applied Protocols are divided into “layers,” with each layer defining a specific function Information Technology in Theory
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10 The OSI Reference Model Helps organize, discuss, and understand the many functions required to exchange information between computing devices Developed in the 1980s by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Divides protocol functions into seven categories, or layers Information Technology in Theory
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11 The OSI Reference Model (continued) Information Technology in Theory
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12 Layer 1: Physical Layer Specifies the functions of protocols that define the electrical and mechanical specifications for the interface between a device and a transmission medium, such as fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, or twisted pair Voltage levels, transmission rates, signal timing, connection specifications, and other characteristics are addressed at this layer Example: TIA/EIA-232 serial interface Information Technology in Theory
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13 Layer 1: Physical Layer (continued) TIA/EIA-232 9-pin interface Information Technology in Theory
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9781423901402_PPT_Ch13 - Information Technology in Theory...

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