9781423901402_PPT_Ch16 - Information Technology in Theory...

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Chapter 16 The Telephone System Information Technology in Theory By Pelin Aksoy and Laura DeNardis
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2 Objectives Understand the main physical components of the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network, including transmission facilities, switching equipment, and customer premises equipment Become familiar with the functionality of private branch exchanges (PBXs) and Centrex systems Information Technology in Theory
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3 Objectives (continued) Understand pulse code modulation techniques for converting analog into digital signals for the digital telephone system Distinguish between wavelength-division, time- division, statistical time-division, and frequency- division multiplexing Information Technology in Theory
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4 Objectives (continued) Identify the function of the T-carrier system, Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Understand signaling protocols for digital telephone systems such as Signaling System 7 (SS7) Information Technology in Theory
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5 Historical Background Prior to the introduction of the telephone in 1876, the primary methods of communicating over long distances were the postal service and telegraph Bell’s invention of transmitting human voice over electrical wires in 1876 became the basis of telecommunications development for more than a century Information Technology in Theory
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6 Historical Background (continued) Early telephones had the same primary components of today’s telephones: A switch acting as a mechanism to connect a caller to the telephone network A speaker to hear the other caller’s voice A microphone to detect human speech and convert these sound waves into electrical current Information Technology in Theory
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7 Historical Background (continued) Early telephone microphones consisted of small carbon granules that would compress and decompress in response to the sound waves they detected This compression and decompression would then alter the resistance of the granules and therefore “modulate” or alter the electrical signal flowing through the material Recall Ohm’s law: V = IR Information Technology in Theory
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8 Historical Background (continued) In 1877, Bell founded the Bell Telephone Company, which would become the largest company in the world In the early 1980s, a Department of Justice antitrust suit against AT&T ultimately resulted in the company’s breakup The Modified Final Judgment (MFJ) was the antitrust settlement agreement between the Information Technology in Theory
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9 Historical Background (continued) The MFJ resulted in competition for long-distance telephone services and in equipment manufacturing, and it regulated monopolies in regional phone services Under the terms of the MFJ, the United States was divided into regions called Local Access and Transport Areas (LATAs) More than a decade later, the regulatory framework of the U.S. telecommunications industry changed again with the passing of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 Information Technology in Theory
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2011 for the course CIS 3003 taught by Professor Bauer during the Spring '11 term at University of Central Florida.

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9781423901402_PPT_Ch16 - Information Technology in Theory...

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