Statistics Ch. 1

# Statistics Ch. 1 - STA 2023 Module 1 The Nature of...

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Rev.F07 1 STA 2023 Module 1 The Nature of Statistics

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Rev.F07 2 Learning Objectives Upon completing this module, you should be able to: 1. Classify a statistical study as either descriptive or inferential. 2. Identify the population and the sample in an inferential study. 3. Explain the difference between an observational study and a designed experiment. 4. Classify a statistical study as either an observational study or a designed experiment. 5. Explain what is meant by a representative sample. 6. Describe simple random sampling. 7. Use a table of random numbers to obtain a simple random sample. http://faculty. valenciacc . edu/ashaw/ Click link to download other modules.
Rev.F07 3 Learning Objectives (cont.) 1. Describe systematic random sampling, cluster sampling, and stratified sampling. 2. State the three basic principles of experimental design. 3. Identify the treatment group and control group in a study. 4. Identify the experimental units, response variable, factor(s), levels of each factor, and treatments in a designed experiment. 5. Distinguish between a completely randomized design and a randomized block design. http://faculty. valenciacc . edu/ashaw/ Click link to download other modules.

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Rev.F07 4 What Is (Are?) Statistics? Statistics (the discipline) is a way of reasoning, a collection of tools and methods, designed to help us understand the world. Statistics (plural) are particular calculations made from data. Data are values with a context . http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/ Click link to download other modules.
Rev.F07 5 What Are Data? Data can be numbers, record names, or other labels. Not all data represented by numbers are numerical data (e.g., 1=male, 2=female). Data are useless without their context… http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/ Click link to download other modules.

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Rev.F07 6 The “W’s” To provide context we need the W’s Who What (and in what units) When Where Why (if possible) and How of the data. Note: the answers to “who” and “what” are essential. http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/ Click link to download other modules.
Rev.F07 7 Data Tables The following data table clearly shows the context of the data presented: Notice that this data table tells us the What (column titles) and Who (row titles) for these data. http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/ Click link to download other modules.

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8 Who The Who of the data tells us the individual cases about which (or whom) we have collected data. Individuals who answer a survey are called respondents . People on whom we experiment are called subjects or participants . Animals, plants, and inanimate subjects are called experimental units . http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ashaw/
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Statistics Ch. 1 - STA 2023 Module 1 The Nature of...

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